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356 ICTM (International Council for Traditional Music). This is one of the two largest, and most international, organisations for the study of traditional music and dance in culture. Its aims are ‘to further the study, practice, documentation, preservation and dissemination of traditional music, including folk, popular, classical and urban music, and dance of all countries’. Founded in London, England in 1947, as the International Folk Music Council, the ICTM is currently an NGO in Formal Consultative Relations with UNESCO. It is organised around an executive (president, vice-president, secretary general,executive assistant and members),national committees (in thirty-three countries), and liaison officers (in a further forty countries). The secretariat is currently based at the Australian National University in Canberra. National committees hold annual symposia or conferences focusing on a specific theme. world conf erences. ICTM holds biennial world conferences – the five most recent were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2001), Fuzhou and Quanzhou, China (2003/2004), Sheffield (2005), Vienna (2007) and Durban, South Africa (2009). At these fora ICTM members and members of the public present papers and discuss a wide range of issues. Because of its broad membership base (academics and practitioners from the disciplines of ethnomusicology, anthropology, ethnochoreology , etc.) the organisation operates study groups of members in common areas of scholarly study. These are numerous, some currently dealing with such as minorities, gender, technology and ethnochoreology . Such are fundamental to a large organisation – they meet regularly and publish their findings. On a periodic basis ICTM organises themed, focused colloquia which involve intensive discussion by a relatively small group of invited scholars from related fields. In 2008 these addressed Musical Exodus: Al-Andalus and its Jewish Diasporas (held in Cambridge, UK), and Indigenous Music and Dance as Cultural Property: Global Perspectives (in Toronto). publications. The main scholarly publication is The Yearbook for Traditional Music, a peer-reviewed journal with articles, reviews, and reports for the international membership. A biennial bulletin has the calendar of events, and reports from study groups, national committees and liaison officers. Also, in each decade the Council publishes a directory which lists individual and institutional members, contact details and areas of interest.The Council also edited the UNESCO Collection of Traditional Music, a cd series focusing on the traditional music of a given country; Ríonach Uí Ógáin edited the Ireland cd in this series in 1997. [THS] ICTM Ireland. The Irish committee of the International Council for Traditional Music. Formed in 2006, it provides a research forum for scholars and students of Irish music, as well as researchers of other music cultures who are based in Ireland. ICTM Ireland also promotes collaboration between academic institutions, both North and South.The society holds its annual conference each spring and is developing a publication of proceedings . Activities are facilitated by an elected committee whose members mainly work in higher education institutions in Ireland. issues. The inaugural symposium ‘A National Ethnomusicology’,with Anthony Seeger (UCLA) as the keynote speaker, addressed the significance of ethnomusicology in small nation states, such as Ireland,exploring the significance of anthropology, folklore and cultural studies in developing a unified national voice. In 2007, with Philip Bohlman (University of Chicago, president of the SEM) as keynote speaker, the society looked at current and historical representations of Irish music in a symposium, ‘Irish Popular Music and Dance in History’. The 2008 ‘Fieldwork’ symposium, with keynote speaker Ríonach Uí Ógain (UCD), paid tribute to folklore collector Tom Munnelly. The symposium looked at cross-cultural approaches to fieldwork, insider and outsider views of traditional music, and the undertaking of fieldwork from a I Inishowen singing festival 357 distance and within virtual communities. At the 2009 ‘Recording’ conference at UCD, Suzanne Ziegler of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv discussed the lineage and significance of Irish wax cylinder recordings which are held at the archive; she also formally repatriated data concerning Richard Henebry to the ITMA. The conf erence discussed recording, archiving, access, copyright, ethics, fieldwork, and technology. ICTM Ireland also holds student conferences. [SUM,THS] idiophone. Self-sounding,fixed-pitch instrument. The term applies to cymbals, rhythm sticks and instruments such as bones,spoons,wood-block and castanets.It is also the generic term covering items as diverse as Jew’s harp, bells, xylophones, wind chimes, tambourine jingles, music-boxes, bottleclicking and table-tapping with coins. Idiophones may be stamped on the ground, shaken, struck with a striker, struck against each other (bones), scraped (Latin music...