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291 Gaelacadamh, An. Begun in 1976, this musicteaching scheme was set up in Co. Galway to conserve, encourage and promote Irish language and culture in Connemara and the Aran Islands.It aims to develop interest among young people in all forms of music. It operates from Spiddal as a hub, and reaches as far as Carna and the Aran Islands, with a total of twenty-four classes. Sean-nós song is taught by active singers, among them Treasa Ní Mhiolláin, Tomás Ó Neachtain (Spiddal), Pat Phádraig Tom Ó Conghaile (Spiddal), Máire Pheter (Indreabháin), Peatsaí Ó Ceannabháin (Rosmuc), Joe John Mac An Iomaire (Cill Chiaráin), Máire Chuilín (Carna), Johnny Mháirtín Larry (Carna). In 2004 the body lobbied successfully to have a music teacher employed at Scoil Phobail Mhic Dara, Carna, Co. Galway. All instruments are taught by An Gaelacadamh, and while classical and traditional were taught side by side originally, classical is now self-sustaining. Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). The largest sporting organisation in Ireland,this was founded in 1884 as part of the regenerative cultural movement in Irish politics which also saw the foundation of the Feis Cheoil and the Gaelic League.The GAA dedicates itself to ‘Gaelic games’, identified as hurling,football and handball.Strongly nationalist, in varying measure its social dimension embraces all things Irish, notably language, music, song and iconology. It has c.200,000 players over all of the island of Ireland, organised into c.2,500 clubs, attached to which are a large number of other people such as officials and social-club members (who include former players and helpers); 411 of the clubs are in Northern Ireland, 583 in geographical Ulster. GAA clubs have been a focus for much traditional-music activity such as céilís in the past and the organisation has promoted set dancing among its non-footballer members through the Scór competition. Set dance is of iconic significance in some clubs, and it has often been featured as a half-time display during major games, including the all-Ireland football final. Local GAA clubs may also facilitate the teaching of traditional music and step dance. See also Scór; song in English, GAA. GaelicLeague(GL)(ConradhnaGaeilge,CnG). The main body promoting the Irish language. Set up in 1893,its headquarters are in Dublin.A classless organisation, it is by its nature educational and has been a widespread forum of adult education; its aim is the recovery of Ireland’s past to make that a dynamic in the present and future; music and music heritage have always been within its remit. It was the instigator of and still organises the annual Oireachtas competitive event. Begun in 1897, this featured the Dublin Musical Society, enlarged with Gaelic Leaguers, performing choral song in Irish. Solo singing was featured f rom the start – with names such as Vincent O’Brien, Séamus Clandillon and Annie Patterson prominent in the early years. The pattern became varied and extended – thirteen competitions in the 1902 programme leading to the song-book series Cláirseach na nGael under the editorship of Brendan Rogers and J.H. Lloyd and in consultation with Carl Hardebeck and Grattan Flood. Songs harmonised and arranged for ‘chorus singing’, by Robert Dwyer, were published as having been sung at the 1902 festival. sean-nós song. At the 1903 CnG Ardfheis (annual conference) it was decided to take up sean-nós song in an organised way:‘thatTraditional singing (old Irish Style) should be encouraged at future Oireachtais or Feiseanna’. Special conferences supported by Pádraig Pearse, Alice Milligan, Edward Martyn et al. were organised in 1910 and 1911. The Feis Cheoil was almost coeval with the Oireachtas and the bigger feiseanna (Feis Matthew, Feis Shligigh, etc.) all drew on a stream of consciousness released by ‘An Conradh’, which led to smaller feiseanna being organised by its branches throughout the country.There was a certain tension between the sean-nós and the bel canto singing styles and two separate traditions and so almost two separate sets of competition evolved – Sorcha G Gael Linn 292 Ní Ghuairim, say, representing the former, Máire Ní Scolaí the latter. composition. Competitions in composition were initiated at the 1901 Oireachtas and concerts were major points in the calendar of CnG itself, its branches and sub-organisations. Owen Lloyd had his ‘Band of Harps’at the 1900 concert, which also featured Tomás Rowsome on the...