restricted access How to Use This Book
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This book was designed to help you identify groups of insects using three criteria: picture identification, common physical traits, and the biology and ecology of the group. First, use the photographs to place the specimen in one of the groups described in the following photo key. In many cases , you will be able to readily accomplish this step. For example, most people can recognize a fly, a butterfly, a beetle, and many other insects. However, some arthropods , particularly the smaller ones, are not as common, and you must determine the order to which they belong. Once you have established the group, turn to that section, scan the photographs looking for similarities, and review the characteristics listed. The insect families are arranged in alphabetical order according to their common names, so you do not have to be familiar with the family names or the group’s evolutionary history. The physical characteristics of each entry are given, and those that are particularly important in identifying a specimen in the field are in bold print. (A glossary is included with terms that relate to the characteristics described.) Often the biology and/or ecology of the specimen are as important as its physical characteristics in identifying the organism. These key characteristics may include preferred habitats and food sources in addition to the physical traits. In some cases, the number of antennal and mouthpart segments, as well as the segments in the foot, are important identifying characteristics. These traits are visible only under magnification and are given if a more definitive identification is needed. The combined physical characteristics , biology, and ecology of the specimen should enable you to place the specimen in the proper group. However, it is important to remember that there are exceptions to almost every rule. If a definitive classification is needed, you should consult other references or a trained entomologist. Most scientific names are derived from Latin or Greek terms. To assist the reader in pronouncing and remembering the arthropod group’s name, the meanings of the root words are given and a pronunciation guide has been developed. The following pronunciation legend can be used: \ a \ as a in cat \ ah \ as a in father \ ai \ as ai in stair \ ay \ as ay in stay \ ee \ as ea in easy \ eh \ as e in red \ ih \ as i in hit \ oh \ as o in go \ oo \ as oo in boot \ oy \ as oy in boy \ uh \ as u in up \ y \ as i in lime \ b \ as b in boot \ d \ as d in day \ f \ as f in finger \ g \ as g in go How to Use This Book Kattes_book.indb 17 2/13/09 7:03:32 AM 18 how to use this book \ h \ as h in hot \ j \ as j in judge \ k \ as k in kite \ l \ as l in like \ m \ as m in moon \ n \ as n in not \ p \ as p in pipe \ r \ as r in right \ s \ as s in sat \ t \ as t in tap \ v \ as v in vivid \ z \ as z in zoo The bulk of this book describes the orders and families of insects that are commonly found in Texas. Following are the common arthropods and the characteristics most commonly associated with that group. Common Name Class Order Page Arachnids Arachnida 32 Spiders “ Araneae 33 Scorpions “ Scorpiones 34 Whipscorpions “ Uropygi 35 Harvestmen “ Opiliones 36 Mites and ticks “ Acari 37 Pseudoscorpions “ Pseudoscorpiones 38 Windscorpions “ Solifugae 39 Crustaceans Crustacea 40 Sowbugs and pillbugs “ Isopoda 40 Crayfish and crabs “ Decapoda 40 Millipedes Diplopoda (several) 41 Centipedes Chilopoda (several) 42 Insects Hexapoda 43 Springtails “ Collembola 44 Silverfish “ Thysanura 45 Mayflies “ Ephemeroptera 46 Dragonflies and damselflies “ Odonata 47 Walkingsticks “ Phasmatodea 54 Grasshoppers, katydids, crickets “ Orthoptera 55 Mantids “ Mantodea 62 Cockroaches “ Blattodea 63 Termites “ Isoptera 64 Earwigs “ Dermaptera 65 Webspinners “ Embiidina 66 Stoneflies “ Plecoptera 67 Kattes_book.indb 18 2/13/09 7:03:32 AM how to use this book 19 Booklice and barklice “ Psocoptera 68 Chewing lice “ Phthiraptera (suborder Mallophaga) 69 Sucking lice “ Phthiraptera (suborder Anoplura) 70 True bugs “ Hemiptera (suborder Heteroptera) 71 Aphids, cicadas, hoppers “ Hemiptera (suborders Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha) 92 Thrips “ Thysanoptera 101 Antlions, dobsonflies, lacewings “ Neuroptera 102 Beetles “ Coleoptera 110 Scorpionflies “ Mecoptera 135 Fleas “ Siphonaptera 136 Flies “ Diptera 137 Caddisflies “ Trichoptera 157 Butterflies, moths, skippers “ Lepidoptera 158 Wasps, ants, bees “ Hymenoptera 180 Kattes_book.indb 19 2/13/09 7:03:32 AM 20 how to use this book Arachnids, Class Arachnida Four pairs of legs Two body regions (sometimes...