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NOTES Introduction The epigraph to this section is from Huey Newton, speech delivered at Boston College, November 18, 1970, in Huey P. Newton, To Die for the People: The Writings of Huey P. Newton, ed. Franz Schurman (New York: Random House, 1972), 31. 1. Charles William Hopkins, “The Deradicalization of the Black Panther Party: 1966– 1973” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1978); Kathleen Cleaver, “The Evolution of the International Section of the Black Panther Party in Algiers, 1969– 1972” (senior essay, Yale University, 9 December 1983); Kit Kim Holder, “The History of the Black Panther Party, 1966–1972” (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, 1990); Angela Darlean Brown, “Servants of the People: A History of Women in the Black Panther Party” (senior honors thesis, Harvard University, 1992); Tracye A. Matthews, “No One Ever Asks What a Man’s Role in the Revolution Is: Gender and Sexual Politics in the Black Panther Party, 1966–1971” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1998); Robyn C. Spencer, “Repression Breeds Resistance:The Rise and Fall of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, 1966–1982” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 2001); Paul Alkebulan, “The Role of Ideology in the Growth, Establishment, and Decline of the Black Panther Party: 1966 to 1982” (Ph.D. diss., University of California-Berkeley, 2003). 2. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Internal Security, Gun-Barrel Politics: The Black Panther Party, 1966–1971, 92nd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971), 69–80. 3. Diahhne Jenkins, “Socialism: Serving the People,” Black Panther, 1 November 1969, 19; “Illinois Chapter Free Medical Clinic,” Black Panther, 18 October 1969, 3. 4. Eldridge Cleaver, “On the Ideology of the Black Panther Party,” Black Panther, 6 June 1970, 12–15; New York 21, “Open Letter to the Weather Underground,” East Village Other, 2 February 1971, 3. 5. Memo, FBI director to all offices, on Counter-Intelligence Program, Black Nationalist Hate Groups, Internal Security, 25 August 1967; FBI memo, G. C. Moore to W. C. Sullivan , on Counter-Intelligence Program, Black Nationalist Hate Groups, Racial Intelligence, 14 May 1970, The Counter-Intelligence Program of the FBI (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources , 1978), 30 reels. 6. Huey Newton, “On the Defection of Eldridge Cleaver from the Black Panther Party and the Defection of the Black Panther Party from the Black Community,” Black Panther Intercommunal News Service, 17 April 1971, suppl., C–F. 7. Ollie A. Johnson III, “Explaining the Demise of the Black Panther Party: The Role of Internal Factors,” in The Black Panther Party Reconsidered, ed. Charles E. Jones, 403–6 (Baltimore : Black Classic Press, 1998). 8. Ibid., 406, 407. 9. Pearl Stewart, “Black Panther Party Falters,” Oakland Tribune, 27 November 1977, 2C; George Williamson, “Police Tell Theory of Black Panther ‘Purge,’” San Francisco Chronicle 8 December 1977, 1; Abron Papers, Black Panther Party Archives, Howard University , Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Washington, D.C. 10. Elaine Brown, A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story (New York: Pantheon, 1992), 437–50. Prologue The epigraph to this section is from Huey P. Newton, “A Functional Definition of Politics,” Black Panther, 17 February 1970, 3. 1. Mary L. Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000), 3–17. 2. W. E. B. DuBois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1940), 192–204. 3. Ibid., 200. 4. Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (New York: Vintage Books, 1967), 46, 47, 58–84. 5. Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America (Chicago: Nation of Islam, 1965), 161–64. The Muslim program of “What We Want, What We believe” strongly infl enced the Black Panther Party’s 1966 ten-point program and platform, especially in regard to political autonomy. The party revised the Nation of Islam’s point number 10 and called for a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the national destiny of black people. The call for a plebiscite was deleted in 1972 and replaced with a phrase calling for control of modern technology. The reason for the change will be discussed in the first chapter. 6. Bobby Seale, Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton 134 / notes to pages xiii–4 (New York: Vintage Books, 1970), 4–12; David Hilliard and Donald Weise, eds., The Huey P. Newton...


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