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Notes Introduction 1. Ornette Coleman Quartet, This Is Our Music (Atlantic 1353, 1960); Ornette Coleman Double Quartet, Free Jazz (Atlantic 1364, 1960). 2. Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 8. 3. Krin Gabbard, ‘‘The Jazz Canon and Its Consequences,’’ in Jazz Among the Discourses, ed. Gabbard (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995), 2–3. 4. Lawrence W. Levine, The Opening of the American Mind: Canons, Culture, and History (Boston: Beacon Press, 1996). 5. For an insight into debates over the jazz heritage, see Wynton Marsalis, ‘‘What Jazz Is—and Isn’t,’’ New York Times (July 31, 1988) Arts and Leisure: 21, 24; Stanley Crouch, ‘‘Cecil Taylor: Pitfalls of a Primitive,’’ Village Voice (March 30, 1982): 50. For an analysis of these controversies, see Paul Erickson, ‘‘Black and White, Black and Blue: The Controversy Over the Jazz Series at Lincoln Center ,’’ Jazz and American Culture 2 (Summer 1997) [on-line journal, 5–6]; John Gennari, ‘‘Jazz Criticism: Its Development and Ideologies,’’ Black American Literature Forum 25 (Fall 1991): 485–510; Larry Kart, ‘‘Provocative Opinion: The Death of Jazz?’’ Black Music Research Journal 10 (Spring 1990): 76–81. 6. For an overview of critical attempts to establish a jazz canon during the twentieth century, see Gennari, ‘‘Jazz Criticism,’’ 449–523; Scott DeVeaux, ‘‘Constructing the Jazz Tradition: Jazz Historiography,’’ Black American Literature Forum 25 (Fall 1991): 525–60; Gabbard, ‘‘The Jazz Canon and Its Consequences ,’’ 1–28. 7. For an extended examination of twentieth-century jazz criticism, see John Remo Gennari, ‘‘The Politics of Culture and Identity in American Jazz Criticism ’’ (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1993). 8. In addition to Levine’s Highbrow/Lowbrow, see Paul J. DiMaggio, ‘‘Cultural Entrepreneurship in Nineteenth-Century Boston,’’ in Nonprofit Enterprise in the Arts: Studies in Mission and Constraint, ed. DiMaggio (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 41–61. 9. David Hollinger, In the American Province: Studies in the Historiography of Ideas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 74–91; Matei Calinescu, Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-Garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism, rev. ed. (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1987); Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984); Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, trans. Richard Nice (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984); Andrew Ross, No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture (New York: Routledge, 1989); Joan Shelley Rubin, The Making of Middlebrow Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992). 192 Notes to Pages 5–12 10. Lawrence W. Levine, ‘‘Jazz and American Culture,’’ Journal of American Folklore 102 (January–March 1989): 6–22. 11. For a summary overview of jazz music’s evolving place in American culture , see Burton W. Peretti, Jazz in American Culture (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 1997). Chapter 1. The Resurgence of Jazz in the 1950s 1. Gilbert Millstein, ‘‘Jazz Makes It Up the River,’’ New York Times Magazine (August 24, 1958): 14, 50–54; Leonard Feather, ‘‘Jazz Achieves Social Prestige,’’ Down Beat 22 (September 21, 1955): 11; Eliot Elisofon, ‘‘New Life for U.S. Jazz,’’ Life 38 (January 17, 1955): 42–49; ‘‘The Golden Age of Jazz,’’ Esquire 51 (January 1959): 98–118; George Frazier, ‘‘Blue Notes and Blue Stockings: Impresario Wein and the Newport Jazz Festival,’’ Esquire 44 (August 1955): 55–58; Elaine Guthrie Lorillard with Richard Gehman, ‘‘Hot Time in Old Newport,’’ Collier’s 138 (July 20, 1956): 50–52; Nat Hentoff, ‘‘Jazz in Mid-Passage,’’ High Fidelity 4 (September 1954): 44–46, 118. 2. On the origins of bebop, see Scott DeVeaux, The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). For an extended discussion of bebop’s militant stance see Eric Lott, ‘‘Double V, Double Time: Bebop’s Politics of Style,’’ in Jazz Among the Discourses, ed. Krin Gabbard (Durham , N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995), 243–55. Ingrid Monson explores white assumptions about bebop’s transgressive identity and its place in African American life in ‘‘The Problem with White Hipness: Race, Gender, and Cultural Conceptions in Jazz Historical Discourse,’’ Journal of the American Musicological Society 48 (Fall 1995): 409–20. 3. Charles A. Thomson and Walter H. C. Laves, Cultural Relations and U.S. Foreign Policy (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963), 79. 4. W. T. Lhamon, Jr., Deliberate Speed: The Origins of a Cultural Style in the American 1950s (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1990), 99, 101. Lhamon makes a convincing...