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Norway In 1890 Henry Bonham Carter advised Nightingale of ‘‘Miss P.’s report to the council,’’ regarding the success of the Leper Hospital in Norway.688 Holland In 1890 Nightingale received a letter from Amy de Lewes who asked to speak with her about training nurses in Holland.689 No further information is available. Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing were translated into Dutch in 1863. American Hospitals Editor: Nightingale had an enormous influence on the early development of nursing in the United States, thanks greatly to the concerted work of key collaborators. Her involvement with nursing in the American Civil War is related in volume 15. Several American doctors sought out and, to varying extents, followed her advice: notably Walker Gill Wylie690 of the Bellevue Hospital, New York (an old workhouse), and later Alfred Worcester691 of the Waltham Training School in Boston. William Rathbone promoted the extension of the Nightingale method to America, as did Edwin Chadwick. Rathbone described the opportunity to Nightingale, in 1873, as the ‘‘opening for introducing trained nursing into America, with the best hopes of its success.’’692 He encouraged Florence Lees to visit and report back on her findings. Florence Lees duly made a trip to American (and Canadian) hospitals in 1873-74. She send back detailed reports on conditions and acted as an intermediary. One pertinent observation was that, while there were nursing schools in the United States in 1873, they were ‘‘unfortunately under male supervision.’’693 The Waltham School itself was a prime example. Nightingale’s own efforts were amazingly effective for the relatively small number of letters she wrote and American visitors she received. But these letters and meetings were instrumental in getting a number 688 Letter 15 June 1890, Add Mss 47723 f11. 689 Letter 4 January 1890, Add Mss 45809 ff246-47. 690 Walker Gill Wylie (1848-1923), which Nightingale routinely misspelled as Gull, author of Hospitals: History of Their Origin and Development, 1876. 691 Alfred Worcester (1855-1951), professor of hygiene at Harvard University, founder of the Waltham Training School for Nurses. 692 Letter 30 June 1873, Add Mss 47754 f321. 693 Letter 12 February [1874], Add Mss 47756 ff228-32. 498 / Florence Nightingale: Extending Nursing of training schools started, which in turn influenced the founding of others. Dr Worcester’s interventions in Toronto and Ottawa in 1897 were crucial in getting district nursing started in Canada. Nightingale was mentor to several of the major nursing leaders in the United States: Linda Richards (the first trained nurse in the United States and founder of trained nursing in numerous hospitals); Isabel Hampton Robb (who started two nursing schools and produced a major textbook), Charlotte Macleod (a Canadian training superintendent in Boston, who later established district nursing in Canada) and Elisabeth Robinson Scovil (another Canadian who was a superintendent in the United States). As well, although without Nightingale’s direct involvement, St Thomas’-trained Louisa Parsons (1855-1916), an Englishwoman, founded the training school at the University of Maryland, and promoted the Nightingale method in many places). The training school at Bellevue, New York, has been described as the ‘‘first of its kind in the United States,’’ and ‘‘an outstanding exponent of the Nightingale plan in America,’’ which supplied ‘‘many pioneers of reformed nursing on this continent.’’694 It was not always so: Dr Gill Wylie, prompted by the report of a visiting committee condemning the appalling conditions in New York’s Bellevue Hospital, went to Europe in 1872 to examine nursing training .695 He contacted Nightingale from Paris, but his letter missed her, and she was too ill to meet with him when he was in London. Instead she wrote him a lengthy and useful letter which he, much to her annoyance, had printed and circulated widely without asking her consent . Miffed, she was slow in replying to later correspondence. The next year, Nightingale received a letter from the chair of the Bellevue committee, Elizabeth Hobson,696 telling her of their progress made towards setting up nurse training at Bellevue Hospital, and asking if she could recommend a superintendent. They had a particular woman in mind who had been given a salary raise to $1000 to stay at her current place! They wanted an angel in human form, ‘‘extremely 694 Isabel M. Stewart and Agnes Gelinas, eds., A Century of Nursing: With Hints toward the Organization of a Training School and Florence Nightingale’s Historic Letter on the Bellevue School 170; see also Jamieson and Sewell, Trends in...


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