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147 Notes Chapter One 1  . Executive Order, “Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of the Detention Facilities ,” January 22, 2009 (www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Closure OfGuantanamoDetentionFacilities/). 2  . Prepared Statement of Benjamin Wittes before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Improving Detainee Policy: Handling Terrorism Detainees within the American Justice System, 110 Cong., 2 sess., June 4, 2008 (http://judiciary.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=3390& wit_id=7214).  3  . Al Maqaleh v. Gates, 605 F.3d 84 (D.C. Cir. 2010). 4  . “Remarks by the President on National Security,” Washington D.C., May 21, 2009 (www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by -the-President-On-National-Security-5-21-09/). 5  . “Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address,” Washington D.C., January 27, 2010 (www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/ remarks-president-state-union-address). 6  . David Kris, “Law Enforcement as a Counterterrorism Tool,” address at the Brookings Institution, June 10, 2010. 7  . Benjamin Powell, correspondence with author, June 28, 2010. 8  . Richard A. Posner, Not a Suicide Pact: The Constitution in a Time of National Emergency (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 59. 9  . Authorization for Use of Military Force, Public Law 107–40, September 18, 2001. 07-0491-1 notes.indd 147 10/14/10 6:14 PM 148     Notes to Pages 34–45 Chapter Two 1  . Daphne Eviatar, “Debate Intensifies over Preventive Detention : Prominent Lawyers Urge Obama Administration Not to Create New Indefinite Detention Scheme,” Washington Independent, July 2, 2009 (http://washingtonindependent.com/49457/left-leaning-lawyersurge -caution-on-detention-policy). 2  . 50 U.S.C. § 21 3  . Lockington v. Smith, 15 F. Cas. 758, 759 (C.C. Pa. 1817). See also Gerald L. Neuman and Charles F. Hobson, “John Marshall and the Enemy Alien: A Case Missing from the Canon,” Green Bag 9, no. 1 (2005), p. 38. 4  . 40 Stat. 1651–52 (1917). 5  . 40 Stat. 1716–19 (1917). 6  . 40 Stat. 1772–73 (1918). 7  . 6. Fed. Reg. 6321–25 (1941). 8  . Robert R. Wilson, “Treatment of Civilian Alien Enemies,” American Journal of International Law 37, no. 1 (1943), p. 30. 9  . 335 U.S. 160 (1948). 10  . Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, August 12, 1949. 11  . U.S. Const., art. I, § 9, cl. 2. 12  . See An Act to Enforce the Provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, and for other Purposes, 17 Stat. 13 (1871), Section 4. 13  . See An Act Temporarily to Provide for the Administration of the Affairs of Civil Government in the Philippine Islands, and for Other Purposes, 32 Stat. 691, 692 (1902), Section 5. For information on the invocation of this law, see Fisher v. Baker, 203 U.S. 174 (1906). 14  . See Hawaiian Organic Act, 31 Stat. 141, 153 (1900), Section 67. 15  . Duncan v. Kahanamoku, 327 U.S. 304 (1945). 16  . The Bail Reform Act was passed as P.L. 98-473 (1984). The quoted language is codified at 18 U.S.C. § 3142(b). 17  . See 18 U.S.C § 3142 (c) and 18 U.S.C § 3142 (e). 18  . Tracey Kyckelhahn and Thomas H. Cohen, “Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties: 2004,” Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin (April 2008). 19  . Act of September 24, 1789, ch. 20, § 33. 07-0491-1 notes.indd 148 10/14/10 6:14 PM Notes to Pages 45–57     149 20  . Anjana Malhotra, “Witness to Abuse: Human Rights Abuses under the Material Witness Law since September 11,” Human Rights Watch 17, no. 2 (2005), p. 14. 21  . Ibid., pp. 16 and 33. 22  . See 18 U.S.C. § 3144. See also 18 U.S.C § 3142 (e). 23  . Statement of Janet Napolitano before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Hearing on Oversight of the Department of Homeland Security, 111 Cong., 1 sess., May 6, 2009. 24  . 8 U.S.C. § 1225 (b)(2)(A). 25  . 8 U.S.C. § 1226 (a). 26  . See Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678 (2001); Clark v. Martinez, 543 U.S. 371 (2005). 27  . See Alan Dershowitz, “The Origins of Preventive Confinement in Anglo-American Law—Part I: The English Experience,” University of Cincinnati Law Review 43, no. 1 (1974), p. 1. 28  . Albert Deutsch, The Mentally Ill in America: A History of their Care and Treatment from Colonial Times (Columbia University Press, 1949), p. 419. 29  . Ibid. 30  . See Revised Code of Washington § 71.09. 31  . See Kansas...


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