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172 Notes Introduction 1. Gerald Costello, Mission to Latin America: The Successes and Failures of a Twentieth-Century Crusade (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979). 2. See for instance John Tracy Ellis, American Catholicism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956); Thomas McAvoy, A History of the Catholic Church in the United States (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969); James Hennesey, American Catholics: A History of the Roman Catholic Community in the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981); Jay P. Dolan, The American Catholic Experience: A History from Colonial Times to the Present (New York: Doubleday, 1985); Philip Gleason, Keeping the Faith: American Catholicism Past and Present (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1987). Paul Kollman noticed this gap in Catholic history when he wrote: “Standard histories of U.S. Catholicism have not made missionary activity by U.S. Catholics beyond their borders a central feature of their narratives.” Paul Kollman, C.S.C., “The Promise of Mission History for U.S. Catholic History,” U.S. Catholic Historian 24, no. 3 (Summer 2006): 2. 3. This was especially true of small congregations involved in missionary work. The archives of the Maryknolls and the Jesuits are examples of those that are well organized. 4. Donna Whitson Brett and Edward T. Brett, Murdered in Central America: The Stories of Eleven U.S. Missionaries (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1988). 5. See Edward T. Brett, The U.S. Catholic Press on Central America: From Cold War Anticommunism to Social Justice (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003), which attempts, among other things, to show how U.S. Catholic missionaries in Central America played a large role in changing American Catholic perceptions of U.S. policy in the isthmus. 6. Committee on the Church in Latin America, National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Sharing Faith across the Hemisphere (Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1997). Notes to Pages 2–6   173 7. Dana L. Robert, American Women in Mission: A Social History of Their Thought and Practice (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1997). For more recent contributions on female missionaries and their unique role, see Dana L. Robert, ed., Gender Bearers, Gender Barriers: Missionary Women in the Twentieth Century (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002); Susan Fitzpatrick Behrens, “From Symbols of the Sacred to Symbols of Subversion to Simply Obscure: Maryknoll Women Religious in Guatemala, 1953–1967,” The Americas 51, no. 2 (October 2004): 189–216; and Susan Fitzpatrick Behr­ ens, “Maryknoll Sisters, Faith, Healing, and the Maya Construction of Catholic Communities in Guatemala,” Latin American Research Review 44, no. 3 (2009): 27–49. 8. Angelyn Dries, O.S.F., The Missionary Movement in American Catho­lic History (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1998). 9. Ibid., 1. 10. Ibid., 56–57. 11. John Thomas Gillard, S.S.J., The Catholic Church and the American Negro (Baltimore: St. Joseph’s Society Press, 1929); and Gillard, Colored Catholics in the United States (Baltimore: Josephite Press, 1941). 12. Albert S. Foley, God’s Men of Color: The Colored Catholic Priests of the United States, 1854–1954 (New York: Farrar Straus, 1955). 13. Albert S. Foley, “Adventures in Black Catholic History: Research and Writing,” U.S. Catholic Historian 5, no. 1 (1986): 103–18. 14. Marilyn Wenzke Nickels, Black Catholic Protest and the Federated Colored Catholics, 1917–1933: Three Perspectives on Racial Justice (New York: Garland, 1988). 15. Stephen J. Ochs, Desegregating the Altar: The Josephites and the Struggle for Black Priests, 1871–1960 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990). 16. For an example of how deep-seated Catholic racism was in midnineteenth -century southern Louisiana and how extreme its effects could be, see Stephen J. Ochs, A Black Patriot and a White Priest: André Cailloux and Claude Paschal Maistre in Civil War New Orleans (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000). 17. Cyprian Davis, The History of Black Catholics in the United States (New York: Crossroad, 1990). 18. See Michael J. McNally, “A Minority of a Minority: The Witness of Black Women Religious in the Antebellum South,” Review for Religious 40 (March 1981): 260–69; Sister M. Reginald Gerdes, O.S.P., “To Educate and Evangelize: Black Catholic Schools of the Oblate Sisters of Providence (1828– 1880),” U.S. Catholic Historian 7, nos. 2 and 3 (Spring 1988; Summer 1988): 183–99. 174   Notes to Pages 6–13 19. Diane Batts Morrow, Persons of Color and Religious at the Same Time: The Oblate Sisters of Providence, 1828–1860 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina...


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