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Peter Breughel the Elder, “The Beggars,” 1568. People with disabilities have traditionally been marginalized by society, objects of either scorn or pity. (Public Domain) Theodore Gericault, “A Paralytic Woman.” People with disabilities as spectacle. (© Museum of London) The Feeble-Minded or the Hub to Our Wheel of Vice, Crime and Pauperism. A typical of example of eugenicist literature, customized for reproduction in almost every state for distribution to educators, legislators, policymakers, and the general public. (Courtesy, Ohio Historical Society) The Willowbrook State School and Hospital on Staten Island, New York, opened in 1951, became a symbol of the brutalizing effect of “the total institution.” (Courtesy, William Bronston, MD, Public Hostage: Public Ransom—Inside Institutional America, © 1979) Dr. William Bronston, physician at Willowbrook in the early 1970s, took these photographs to document what he found there. (All images courtesy, William Bronston, MD, Public Hostage: Public Ransom—Inside Institutional America, © 1979) Infants and children crowded two or more in a bed or crib had little or nothing to stimulate their minds and bodies. An open window was a treasured respite from summer heat and stench. Crowding around radiators for warmth in the winter, medicated into oblivion, residents often suffered serious burns. There was no more dangerous place to live in New York City than the back wards of this “state school and hospital.” “Less comfortable and cheerful than the cages in which we put animals in a zoo.” —Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, 1965. A student poses in front of the Rehabilitation Center at the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign , the first disabled students program in the country. (Courtesy, University of Illinois Archives) Among the many innovations at Urbana-Champaign were the nation’s first regularly scheduled lift-equipped buses to move wheelchair-using students around campus. (Courtesy, University of Illinois Archives) Berkeley CIL staff and consumers, c. 1975. First row, left to right, seated on the ground: Steven Handler Klein; Linda Perotti; Suzanne Scott; Judith Rogers; Bette McMuldren. Second row, left to right, seated in wheelchairs: Joan Johnson; Cathrine Caulfield; William Bash; Nancy DiAngelo; Phil Chavez (immediately behind DiAngelo); Wally Whelan; Mary Ann Hiserman; Frank (Franko) Ramsey; Judith Heumann; Hale Zukas (in helmet); Ron Washington. Third row, left to right, standing: Maureen Fitzgerald; Carol Fewell; Deborah Meehan (immediately behind Fewell); unidentified; William McGregor; Vincent Creek; Jim Rowen; Terry Flash; Mary Lester (immediately behind Flash, in shadow); Sondra Thaler (next to and behind Flash); Kari Eis Eeelis; Susan Bateman; Kenneth Stein; Deborah Kaplan; Lynn Kidder; Jerry Wolf; Hal Kirshbaum; Edna Breen; Jan McEwen-Brown; Paul Bendix. Fourth row, left to right, standing center: Tom Fussy; Dick Santos; Darcy Coddingham (partially visible, under hat); Jeff Moyer; Eric Dibner (in beard behind Moyer); Eric Morton (next to bus); Gregory Pick (in front of bus). (Courtesy, Kenneth Okuno) One of the first “Disability Pride” rallies, staged in the late 1970s in San Francisco. (Ken Stein photo) “The father of independent living” Ed Roberts with California governor Jerry Brown Jr. (Ken Stein photo) Judith Heumann, deputy director of the Berkeley CIL and a principal organizer of the 1977 federal HEW building occupation in San Francisco. (Ken Stein photo) The parents’ movement first used the federal courts and then fought for legislation to win a right to education and community services for their children. (Ken Stein photo) “Sleeping accommodations” for some of those occupying the federal HEW building in San Francisco in 1977. (Courtesy, Hollynn D’Lil) Fred Fay, a pioneer of the IL movement, beneath the array of adaptive equipment he custom designed so he could keep connected to the world, 1995. (Courtesy, Exploding Myths, Inc.) Cofounder Mary Lou Breslin in front of the newly opened headquarters of DREDF in Berkeley, c. 1979. (Ken Stein photo) DREDF lobbyist Patrisha Wright with Evan Kemp Jr., commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (Ken Stein photo) “Mr. ADA” Justin Dart Jr., speaking to a crowd and leading “a revolution of empowerment.” (Courtesy, Tom Olin) Leonard Roy Frank, survivor of electric and insulin shock “treatment” and a leader of the psychiatric survivor movement. (Courtesy, Gayle Bluebird) Judi Chamberlin, a leader of the psychiatric survivor movement and author of On Our Own: Patient-Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System. (Courtesy, Gayle Bluebird) ADAPT demonstrators barricading a hotel entrance at the American Public Transit Association’s 1989 conference in Sparks, Nevada, are confronted by police. (Courtesy, Tom Olin) ADAPT protesters block a Greyhound bus to protest the lack of accessible intercity transit. (Courtesy, Tom Olin) Diane Coleman holds the “Freedom Rider” sign...


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