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557 Notes Preface 1. The phrase also forms the title of a history of the disability rights movement by James I. Charlton, Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998). 2. There have, of course, been first-person accounts by people with disabilities, Helen Keller’s The Story of My Life (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1903) being perhaps the most famous . These have generally been personal stories written to explain how, through individual exertion or perhaps with the support of family, friends, therapists, and/or physicians, the author has been able to “triumph” or “overcome” or otherwise accommodate to their disability. In contrast are autobiographies told from a disability rights or movement perspective, for example , Frank Bowe’s Changing the Rules (Silver Spring, MD: T. J. Publishers, 1986) and Connie Panzarino’s The Me in the Mirror (Seattle: Seal Press, 1994). 3. Paul Longmore, “Disability Scholar and Activist, Historian of Early America,” interview conducted by Ann Lage, 2006, DRILM Oral History Project, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; © 2008 by The Regents of the University of California, 161–62. 4. For the history of this convention, see Carol Padden and Tom Humphries, Deaf in America : Voices from a Culture (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988), 2. Introduction 1. Leon Friedman, ed., Argument: The Oral Argument before the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1952–55 (New York: Chelsea House, 1969), 51. 2. Thomas K. Gilhool interview, 53. 3. For a discussion of how these terms were used, see James W. Trent Jr., Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994): “At the [American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded] meeting in 1910 . . . Goddard presented the committee’s new scheme. . . . In it . . . [i]diots referred to individuals with a mental age of two years and less; imbeciles, three to seven years; and morons, eight to twelve years” (161–62). 4. Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927). 5. Mark A. Largent, Breeding Contempt: The History of Coerced Sterilization in the United States (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008), 102. 6. Harry L. Laughlin, “The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization,” a supplement to The Annual Report of the Municipal Court of Chicago, 1929, 17. 7. For a more detailed history of the case and discussion of its impact, see Stephen Trombley , The Right to Reproduce: A History of Coercive Sterilization (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolsen , 1988). The rate of coerced sterilizations after Buck v. Bell “skyrocketed. In 1925, just under 6,000 compulsory sterilization[s] had been recorded, but within ten years that number would top 20,000.” Largent, Breeding Contempt, 102. 8. Floyd Matson, Blind Justice: Jacobus tenBroek and the Vision of Equality (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2005), 117–18. 9. For a discussion of tenBroek’s personal experience with employment discrimination, see Matson, Blind Justice, 86–99. 10. Friedman, Argument, 62–63. 11. Robert Funk, “Disability Rights: From Caste to Class in the Context of Civil Rights,” in Images of the Disabled, Disabling Images, ed. Alan Gartner and Tom Joe (New York: Praeger, 1987), 9, 24. 12. Sharon Barnartt and Richard Scotch, Disability Protests: Contentious Politics, 1970–1999 (Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2001), 3. 13. John Vickrey Van Cleve and Barry A. Crouch, A Place of Their Own: Creating the Deaf Community in America (Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 1989), 1. 14. Nora Ellen Groce, Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness on Martha’s Vineyard (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985). 15. Justin Dart Jr., “An Open Letter from Justin Dart to the Disability Community,” Mainstream : Magazine of the Able-Disabled 22, no. 6 (March 1998): 27. 16. Aliki Coudroglou and Dennis L. Poole, Disability, Work, and Social Policy: Models for Social Welfare (New York: Springer Publishing, 1984), 13. 17. Nancy L. Eiesland, The Disabled God: Toward a Liberatory Theology of Disability (Nashville : Abingdon Press, 1994), 70. 18. James I. Charleton, “Religion and Disability: A World View,” Disability Rag & Resource, September/October 1993, 14–16. 19. William Blair and Dana Davidson, “Religion,” in Encyclopedia of Disability and Rehabilitation , ed. Arthur E. Dell Orto and Robert P. Marinelli (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1995), 628. 20. Nancy J. Lane, “Healing of Bodies and Victimization of Persons: Issues of Faith Healing for Persons with Disabilities,” Disability Rag & Resource, September/October 1993, 11. 21. Melvin Lerner, The Belief in the Just World...


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