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Abbreviations and Glossary ani-ani.  A single-bladed knife used by women to manually harvest rice. arisan.  A rotating credit association where members pay a fixed amount of money or goods every meeting (usually every month or thirty-five days) and draw a name or names as the winner for the sum of money or goods collected by the group. It also serves as a social safety net; if there is an emergency need, a member can request to be the recipient. In most cases, an arisan is combined with a savings group. ayam kampung.  Free-range chicken. This chicken is a local breed and is not treated with hormones. bahasa.  Language. The national language is called Bahasa Indonesia or Indonesian language. bapak. Or pak. Literally means “father,” but the term is usually used to show respect and politeness when addressing a married or middle-aged man. Pak or bapak is also used before the name as a title of respect, for example, Pak Mahmud. bawon.  A rice-harvesting system where agricultural laborers receive a share of the output instead of monetary compensation. becak.  A three-wheeled rickshaw, or pedicab, where the driver rides at the back and the passenger seat is located in the front part of the vehicle. bengkok.  Agricultural land provided as a form of payment to local officeholders. xvi Abbreviations and Glossary Bina Keluarga Balita An assistance program for families with children (BKB). under five years of age. bu. See ibu. bupati. The head of a kabupaten, or district. dalang.  A puppet master in the wayang or the shadow puppet theater. desa.  A village (also called kelurahan). This is a governmental structure below the subdistrict level. The head of a desa, or kelurahan, is called a kepala desa (kades) or lurah. These terms were used nationwide during the New Order government, but since Reformasi, lurah and kelurahan are used mainly in Java; different terms are used in other areas depending on local custom. Dewan Perwakilan An assembly for the regional representatives, Daerah (DPD). who are chosen through general election. The DPD is a national-level institution. Dewan Perwakilan People’s Representative Assembly. The members Rakyat (DPR). of the DPR are chosen through a general  election. DPR is the national level of the assembly or legislature body. Dewan Perwakilan Regional People’s Representative Assembly. Rakyat Daerah DPRD is located both at the provincial level (DPRD).  (DPRD Provinsi or DPRD Tingkat I or DPRD level I) and at the district, or kabupaten, level (DPRD Kabupaten or DPRD Tingkat II or DPRD level II). Dharma Pertiwi. An organization of the wives of military officers. Dharma Wanita.  An organization of the wives of government employees or civil servants. DPD. See Dewan Perwakilan Daerah. DPR. See Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. DPRD. See Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah. dukun.  A subvillage head, also known as kepala dusun (see dusun). dusun.  A subvillage (also called pedukuhan). This is a governmental level below regular village level. Abbreviations and Glossary xvii The head of a dusun, or pedukuhan, is a kepala dusun, or dukuh. The New Order government used the terms dusun and kepala dusun nationwide; since Reformasi, pedukuhan and dukuh are the terms used in Java. Gerakan Indonesia Raya (GERINDRA). The Great Indonesian Movement Party. GERWANI—Gerakan The women’s organization of the Indonesian Wanita Indonesia.  Communist Party (PKI, or Partai Komunis Indonesia); the party and GERWANI were disbanded after the failed coup in 1965. Golkar Party— Literally means “functional groups” or “the party Golongan Karya.  of functional groups.” It was the ruling political party during the New Order era and still remains an active political party. gotong royong.  Reciprocity or mutual help. It is a social institution commonly found in Java where a group of people help one another in community tasks or projects. ibu. Also bu. Literally means “mother,” but it is usually used to show respect and politeness in addressing a married or middle-aged woman. Bu or ibu is also used before the names, for example, Bu Tini, as a title of respect. Idul Fitri.  A Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. This is one of the most important holidays for most Indonesians and a time when people visit friends and family members to seek forgiveness for their past deeds. Institut Keguruan dan An institute of teaching and educational sciences. Ilmu Pendidikan These higher-education institutions focus on (IKIP).  educating teachers and educators. There were several IKIPs in Indonesia; institutes of this type have...


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