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20 THE MORPHOLOGY OF ASPECT ASPECT in general is a verbal category which refers to whether a situation described by the verb is a state or an action; and, if an action, how it unfolds: progressively, completively, habitually, or inherently. Russian grammatical aspect refers to whether a verb is ‘perfective’ or ‘imperfective’. Perfectivity is a grammaticalized ASPECTUALITY (a subaspectual distinction ) referring to completive acts in either past or future time which result in a change in the ‘state of affairs’. Imperfective verbs refer to states, actions or events in progress; to habitual or generic states, actions, and events; and to completive actions and events that do not result in a change of state or situation. Two lexically similar verbs which differ primarily as to aspect, perfective or imperfective, are referred to as an ASPECT PAIR. For example ,  (pf.) and  (impf.), both meaning ‘decide’, comprise an aspect pair. The individual verbs may be described as ASPECT PARTNERS of each other. 20.1. SIMPLEX PERFECTIVE, ALWAYS-IMPERFECTIVE, AND BIASPECTUAL VERBS Most simplex (unprefixed) verbs are imperfective. Only a few simplex verbs in Russian are inherently perfective, among them б с  б с , д дм дд, д ду, к   к , л лгу, л  л , с д, ос ос, ус с ,  , сс сду, с су, су с ,    ‘snatch’ с  с . This list does not include verbs with the semelfactive suffix -у-, for which see Section 20.2. Some prefixed perfective verbs have no imperfective counterparts, for example осу осу, сс сс , ос ос , оус о с , одоб с одоб с . Some imperfective verbs, whether prefixed or not, have no perfective counterparts, for example с с ,   , л ц  л ц , блюд блюдю, удс удюс , о ц о цю, одл одл, од одю, олг 414 20. THE MORPHOLOGY OF ASPECT олгю, дд дд , дсо дсую,  дл  дл, о о  о о, сод сод, сол солю, сосо(с ) сосо(с ), сосо-  сосую, с  с , усо усую. A few simplex verbs are biaspectual (express either aspect according to context), for example л л, (с )  с , к к, кс(с ) кс(с ) or кс (с ), об  об ю, оло оло,    , од(с ) од(с ), со сою, and not many others. Most numerous among the biaspectual verbs are those in -о, whether prefixed or not, for example, дсо, кцо, до, ко, од!со, мсо, с ло, сслдо, коф ско, кооо, кд о, м о, со, слдо, обо, оосдсо, о бо, лго, комдо, со- , and quite a few others. Most verbs in - о and - о are biaspectual, for example дмол о, комд о. Different prefixed forms of the same verb in -о may have different aspect characteristics. For example, обло is biaspectual, while оло is perfective. 20.2. THE PERFECTIVE SEMELFACTIVE SUFFIX -нуA large number of simplex (unprefixed) perfective verbs referring to semelfactive (instantaneous) events or sounds are formed with the suffix pair -у-:-- Here and below in this chapter, we will refer to both members of a suffix pair, infinitive-stem and present stem, by means of its base-form designation, hence in the present instance -у-, See блс блс flash ()до ()до sigh гу гу burst out кол кол prick мог мог wink у у collapse # # fling and many others. The perfectivizing suffix -у- differs from the similar suffix (-у-) or “past-dropping -у-”, which is not stressed, and which usually forms imperfective verbs of change of state, for example, бл$ку бл$ку бл$кл ‘grow wan’, ку ку кл ‘grow strong’, у у л ‘grow hoarse’, and many more. Verbs in -у- referring to 20.2. THE PERFECTIVE SEMELFACTIVE SUFFIX -ну- 415 changes of state may be prefixally perfectivized, for example, оу ‘grow hoarse’-pf. 20.3. ASPECT MORPHOLOGY OF SIMPLEX PERFECTIVES 1. Simplex perfective verbs in - - (second conjugation) are often related to simplex imperfective verbs in --!- (first conjugation), usually not showing stem mutation (but see о , лс , both with mutation). Prefixed perfective verbs in new meanings will usually be formed on the simplex verb in - -. The derived prefixed imperfective in the new meaning will usually be formed on the stem of the simplex imperfective verb, minus the -- suffix, with or without о↓ root-vowel replacement (i.e., ablaut; see Section 20.7). The imperfective suffix may be --!- or - π#-!-: Simplex pf. Simplex impf. Prefixed pf. Derived impf. in new meaning б с  бос &бос  #бс# —* гло огло огл# к   ко к   к  ку- - (о)ку ку ку —* кус кус кс# ос о  уос уо  ус уск (!) ус уск     (сл)** сл сл сл  су су  су  су ***  с с# с лс о с о лс 2. Sometimes simplex pairs in - -:--!- exist, both members of which are imperfective. For example, лом is a virtual synonym of лом. Other verbs of this type include л л, с  , оо о , с , сд с. * The expected simplex perfectives *гло, *кус (in view of, say, огло, кус) are missing. ** The verb сл is substandard, the usual perfective being сл). *** The perfective verb  in the meaning ‘snatch, grab’ is colloquial (it usually means ‘be enough’); the usual perfective of  is с. 416 20. THE MORPHOLOGY OF ASPECT 3. The suffix --!- is the usual imperfective suffix corresponding to simplex semelfactive perfective verbs in -у-. Such pairs usually, although not always, have matching stress, whether on the root or on the suffix: Perfective in -у- Imperfective in --!- д[г]у д[г]у дг дгю (or ду) кл у кл у кл  к ю к[д]у к[д]у к д к дю косс косс ксс ксюс уг уг уг угю ску ску ск скю к к &к &кю  [г]у  [г]у  г  гю ф&ку ф&ку ф&к ф&кю л у л у л  л ю    ю # # # #ю гол гол гол голю and so on. Some semelfactive verbs in -у- are related to first-conjugation verbs in --, for example Verb in -у- Imperfective in -- ку ку к клю кл'у кл'у кл клю' м м м му лс[к] лс[к] лск л у л'у л'у л лю' ссу ссу с с с у су су со су' лс лс лс л у [] []   у while others are related to second-conjugation verbs: Pf. verb in -у Second-conjugation impf. гл[д]у гл[д]у гл д гл д кку кку к  к  ску ску     скол скол скол скол л л л л 20.3. ASPECT MORPHOLOGY OF SIMPLEX PERFECTIVES 417 The verb-pair м  му : м о м ю is of note for using -о- (-оъ§§ --) as an imperfective suffix, possibly the only verb to do so. 4. Prefixed Complex-Act Perfectives based on the Simplex Imperfective Aspect Partner Simplex aspect pairs of the types a. perfective in - -, imperfective in --!- (б с  бос) b. perfective in -у-, imperfective in --!- (у ) c. perfective in -у-, imperfective in -- (су со) with some verbs, and with some prefixes, can form a prefixed perfective on the imperfective stem, creating a...


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