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17 THE VERBAL BASE 17.1. CONSTITUENTS OF THE VERB A verb form consists of the following constituent parts: (PREFIX) + ROOT + (POSSIBLE FORMANT(S)) (+ SUFFIX) + ENDING As a minimum a verb consists of a root plus an ending. However, the root of the verb may be, and usually is, extended by suffixes or formants. For example, here is the infinitive оцло broken down into its components: о- ц л- оъ§§ - (=о) -- - prefix root formant suffix ending Here is the same verb in the 3.p.pl. (оцл ): о- ц л- оъ§§ - (=у) -- -у Note that the outer suffix differs in one stem and the other. It is -- in the infinitive/past stem and -- in the present/imperative stem, bringing about concomitant changes in the preceding stem formant -оъ§§ -, which emerges as о before a vowel and у before a consonant. 17.2. VERB CLASSES Classifying a verb consists in juxtaposing the suffix which, for the given verb, forms the infinitive/past stem to the suffix which forms the present/ imperative stem. If a suffixal slot is not filled, one marks this position for comparative purposes with the sign -#- (null). Sometimes the presence of a present-stem suffix -- must be interpolated by reasoning backwards on the basis of sound-changes that have occurred before it. For example, comparison of the infinitive л to its 3.p.pl. лу suggests that the present stem has a latent suffix -- , which has induced the change of  to : лу ← л--у. Each unique suffixal juxtaposition constitutes a verb class. For example , the verb г гю (г--#- г---у) exhibits the stem for- 342 17. THE VERBAL BASE mant -- in both stems, followed, in the present stem, by the suffix --; hence it belongs to the --#- :--- class of verbs. Verbs of the л лу (л-- л--) class show -- in the infinitive stem and -- in the present stem, and accordingly belong to the --:-- class. So-called obstruent stems like с гб  do not have a suffix in either stem (i.e., the suffix is in both places null), so they belong to the -#-:-#- class. There are some one dozen classes of Russian verbs based on the principle of suffixal comparison. Here is a chart showing the main suffixal combinations, with the verbal base form (see further discussion) given to the right. The arrow (→) marks forms produced by sound-changes. Other forms are produced by simple addition and applying spelling rules. Infinitive 3.p.pl. pres. Infinitive suffix Present suffix Verbal base 1a. гб- → гс гб-  гб  labial C-#- -#- гб- д- → с д-  д  dental C-#- -#- д- к-#- →  к-#-  к  velar C -#- -#- к1b . ь§§ м-#- →  ь§§ м-#-  →   nasal C-#- -#- ь§§ м1c . ъ§§ -#- →  ъ§§ -#-  →   glide C (ъ§§ )-#- -#- ъ§§ - ь§§ŸŸ -#- →  ь§§ŸŸ -#-    glide C ()-#- -#- ь§§ŸŸ 1d . ь§§ -#-ь§§ →  ь§§ -#-  →   liquid ()-#- -#- ь§§ 2 г!- г! г!--  г! -#- -- г!-3 . с- с с-!-у с!у -#- -!- с-!4a . кк-!у- кк!у кк-!-у кк!у -!-у- -!- кк-!у- 17.2. VERB CLASSES 343 4b. с"$-!у- с"$!у с"$-!у- с"$!у (-!-у-) -!- со$-(!у)5 . сос-- сос сос-  сос  -- -#- сос-()6 . о-"- о" "--у → "  -о- -- о-о7a . с с-π- с--у → %у -- -- с-π7b . коъ§§ -π- → ко коъ§§ --  → ку оъ§§ -- -- коъ§§ -7c . д-оъ§§ -- → до д-оъ§§ --у →д  -оъ§§ -- -- д-оъ§§ -7d . д-ъ§§ -- → д д-ъ§§ --  → д -ъ§§ -- -- д-ъ§§ -8 . г-- г г---у г  -- --- г--9 . ум-&- у ум-&--у у  - - - -- ум- -10 . ку-- ку к -' к ' -- -#- ку-11 . смо-&- со см"-' с"' - - -#- смо- 12 . дог-(- → до дог-( → до -'- -#- дог-'17 .2.1. NOTES 1. Verbs of Class 1 are CONSONANT STEMS, also referred to as NONSUFFIXED verbs (they do not have a suffix in either stem). Verbs of other classes are SUFFIXED, although classes 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 12 are SEMI-SUFFIXED (they have a suffix in one stem, but not in the other). Verbs of class 1 are subdivided into 1a: obstruent stems, 1b: nasal stems, 1c: historical glide stems, and 1d: -stems: 344 17. THE VERBAL BASE Class 1a (Obstruent Stems) contains stems in б, , д, с, , к, г: б гб-#- (гс) гб-#-  (гб ) -#- -#-  -#- (с) -#-  ( ) -#- -#- д д-#- (с) д-#-  (д ) -#- -#- с !с-#- (!с) !с-#-  (д ) -#- -#-  г)-#- (г) ) г*-#-  (г* ) -#- -#- к к-#- ( ) к-#-  (к ) -#- -#- г сг-#- (с ) сг-#-  (сг ) -#- -#Class 1b (Nasal Stems) consists of non-suffixed verbs whose stem ends in nasals, either ! or in , e.g. ! ь§§ !-#- (( ) ь§§ !-#-  (! ) -#- -#-  ь§§ -#- ( ) ь§§ -#-  ( ) -#- -#Class 1c (historical Glide Stems) consists of non-suffixed verbs whose stem ends in either  or in ъ§§ , e.g.  ь§§ -#- ( ) ь§§ -#-  ( ) -#- -#-  ъ§§ -#- () ) ъ§§ -§§ -#-  (" ) -#- -#- ъ§§ ъ§§ -#- ( ) ъ§§ -#-  ( ) -#- -#Class 1d (-stems) contains only three roots: ь§§ , ь§§ -, ь§§ -. The second -- in the infinitive (see  ) is a “false suffix” (Chapter 16, Section 16.1.1.1). The past has its own special stem (see  л). This analysis requires sound-change rules specific to this type, such that ь§§ - : - , but before other consonants ь§§ -: -. 2. Verbs of the small Class 2 (-#-:--) are heterogeneous as to historical provenience. The root of д  д ю, related to д)м, can be represented either as д - or as дъ§§ м-, with ъ§§ м: у before a consonant, to stress its relationship to д)м. The verb г! г! is related to г!" and г!о г!о(, and its root could theoretically be taken back to г!- , making it suffixless, but then one would expect its present to be *г! (as б- : б б ). The verb г гю, related to  and го го(, has the root гъ§§ - and arguably belongs to Class 9 17.2.1. NOTES 345 (- -:- --). However, the perfective passive participle in -- (сог*) determines its assignment to Class 2, with a base г --. For a fuller inventory of this class, see Chapter 18, Section 18.2. 3. Class 3 (-#-:-!-) contains four regular verbs с-!-, д -!-, с*-!-, с'- !-, and a couple of verbs with various irregularities: осг-!-, кл'-!-. See discussion further below in Section 17.5.2. 4. Verbs of class 4b (-(!у)-:-!-) lose -!у- in the past tense: с"$(!у)-, past tense с"$, с"$л, etc. Sometimes these verbs lose -!у- only in the nonmasculine forms; hence гб(!у)-, usual past...

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ISBN
9780893577971
Related ISBN
9780893572976
MARC Record
OCLC
809317397
Launched on MUSE
2012-06-08
Language
English
Open Access
No
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