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14 PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND NUMERALS 14.1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS The inflected forms of the personal pronouns follow no uniform pattern and so need to be listed individually. Forms displaying optional initial - do so following prepositions. The Isg. forms given in parentheses are archaic. N   — G м б сб D м б сб A м б сб I м (м ю) об (об ю) соб (соб ю) P м б сб N  о о о G ()г ()г () () D ()м ()м () ()м A ()г ()г () () I ()м ()м () , () ю ()м P м м   N м  к  G  с  с ког г D  м  м ком м A  с  с ког  I  м  м к м  м P  с  с к м м 14.1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS 273 N к  (г ) G ког г D ком м A ког г I к м  м P к м м Except for NA  , G г , the G and A of all of the above items are the same. The N form  is usually used with adjectives, as in   до. With verbs, г may be used with a Nominative function, as in г  слу с. A separate Accusative, as opposed to Genitive, for к and  is difficult to identify, since in potentially Accusative contexts, these items inherently occur in negative contexts calling for the Genitive. Basic prepositions other than б split off -, as in  с к м,  к ком,    ,  к м,  о м, and so on, but б ког , б г . N  ко  о G  кого  го D  кому  му A  го  го I  км  м P  ком  м Strikingly, the N forms  ко and  о mean “someone”, “something”, respectively, while the other forms mean precisely the opposite: “no one (or nothing), not even potentially”. Prepositions split off  -, which retains the stress:  к кому,   м, and so on. 14.2. NUMERALS For the declension of the number 1 од од од (ordinal   ) which follows a pronominal adjective declension, see Chapter 13. Except for 2, 3, 4, numerals display fewer different forms than other nominal-like items. Since numerals occur only in the singular, a single stress mark suffices for indicating stress. A indicates stem stress; A′ designates a stress shift within the stem; B denotes ending-stress, and C marks stem stress in the NA, ending-stress in the other forms. In compounds, C′ indicates a stress shift between one component and the other. Each of the CARDINAL NUMERALS (basic numerals) other than the collectives has a corre- 274 14. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND NUMERALS sponding ORDINAL NUMERAL (used to refer to items in series) which will be given here in parentheses following the cardinal. a. д д B (о ),  B (  ),  ( ) C N m. & n. д f. д   G д    D дм м  м A = N/G = N/G = N/G I дум м  !м P д    b. ! ( ), " с! ("с ), с м! (сд!м ),  см! (ос!м ), д ! (д ), д с! (дс ), all C, with stem-initial stress in the stem-stressed forms: NA ! д с! GDP  дс I !# дс!# Note the mobile vowel in  см! ос!м (but ос!м!#, not *осм!#), here and in compounds using this number. Observe also that the ending -!ю is stressable with numerals, as distinct from the fem.-2 Isg. ending -!ю, which is not stressable. Syncopated oblique forms of д с!, of the sort “дс” for дс, may be encountered in speech. c. оддц!, д дц!,  дц!, дц!,  дц!, "с дц!, см дц!, осм дц!, д дц!, all A. Ordinals are оддц , д дц , and so on. The -- in оддц! is not pronounced double. The cluster дц is often reduced to ц: “одц!”, and analogously for the other numerals of this group. The declension is similar to that of !, but the stress is fixed on the stem: NA д дц! GDP д дц I д дц!ю d. д дц! (ддц  ), дц! (дц  ) C The vowel of -дц! is often syncopated: “д ц!, ц!”. The declension and stress are similar to that of !: 14.2. NUMERALS 275 NA д дц! GDP ддц I ддц!# e. с ок C (сооко ), д со A (д с ), с B (с  ) A; оло C′, оло с C′: NA с ок д со с GDPI соок д с с The numeral с also has the possible plural forms G с  D с м I с м P с . The numerals оло and оло с have a similar declension, with a special C′ stress pattern in which stress in the oblique forms falls on the link-vowel -у-: NA m.&n. оло , f. оло оло с GDPI оло олос f. !дс, "с!дс, с м!дс,  см!дс C′ (ordinals: - дс , "сдс , etc.) Stress falls on the stem in the NA, and on the ending of the initial component in the GDPI (C′). Syncopated forms of the type “с!”, “"сс!”, “с м!с”, etc., are common. NA !дс GDP дс I дс!ю g. д с, с, с C (ordinals: дус  , с  ,  с  ) Forms of с and с present rare instances of unstressed, or secondarily stressed  (underlined below): N д с с с G дус  с   с  D думс м мс м  мс м A д с с с I думс м мс м  мс м P дус  с   с  h. !с , "с!с , см!с , осм!с , д!с  B (ordinals: с  , "сс  , etc.): 276 14. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND NUMERALS N !с  G с  D с м A !с  I !юс м P с  i. Collectives б A′ (m., n.), б A′ (f.), об , д ,   C N б б   G об  об  о D об м об м ом A б б   I об м об м ом P об  об  о The form б is morphophonemic б-% {ób′e}, phonetic [óbäı˘]. The collective form об  is morphophonemic об -о {obójo}, phonetic [VbójE˘]; and similarly for д ,  . j. Collectives:  о, о, " со, с мо,  с!мо, до, дсо C (no ordinals): N  о G  D м A  о I м P  14.3. NOTES ON NUMERAL PHRASES The so-called “paucal” numerals 2, 3, 4, including also б б ‘both’, are adjectives in oblique cases (GDIP) and so agree with the quantified noun in case and, in the instance of the NA of 2 and ‘both’, in gender. In the direct cases (NA), 2, 3, 4, and ‘both’ are quantifiers and take the quantified noun in the Gsg. An adjective modifying a noun quantified by 2, 3, 4 in a nominative or accusative function will be placed either in the Gpl. for masculine and neuter nouns or in the Npl. for feminine nouns: 14.3. NOTES ON NUMERAL...


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