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12 ADJECTIVE DECLENSION 12.1. LONG-FORM ADJECTIVE ENDINGS There is a single long-form adjective declension, differentiated, as are nouns, according to gender, number, and case. Different superficial subtypes depend on spelling rules. Spelling rules and stem-types for adjectives (plain, soft, velar, hushing, ц) are basically the same as for nouns. There are no -stems among the adjectives, and very few soft-stems, most of them ending in  . 12.1.1. MORPHOPHONEMIC LONG-FORM ADJECTIVE ENDINGS Masc. Neut. Fem. Pl. N -Øj -ojo -aja -ije G -ovo → -oj -ix D -omu → -oj -im A = N/G = N -uju = N/G I -im → -oj -im'i P -om → -oj -ix 12.1.2. TECHNICAL ORTHOGRAPHIC LONG-FORM ENDINGS Masc. Neut. Fem. Pl. N -ъ§§  -о (-оо) - (-) G -ого → -о D -ому → -о - м A = N/G = N -ую = N/G I - м → -о - м P -ом → -о - 240 12. ADJECTIVE DECLENSION 12.2. NOTES ON THE ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 12.2.1. NSG. MASCULINE When stressed, the Nsg. masc. long-form adjective ending is -о {-oj}; when unstressed, it is -  {-ij}. It is possible to derive these two endings from a single ending -ъ§§  {-Øj}, going to -о {-oj} when stressed, and to -  {-ij} when unstressed in word-final position (before -#), hence дб-ъ§§ : дб , бол-ъ§§ π: бол. These rules belong to a cluster of minor sound-change rules relating to ъ§§ ; see Chapter 4, Section 12.2.2. NSG. MASCULINE OF SOFT STEMS The Nsg. masc. ending often loses final  in normal-paced speech, especially after soft stems: с [säínäi(j)]. 12.2.3. NSG. NEUTER AND FEMININE The Nsg. neuter and feminine endings, normally spelled -о and -, respectively , are analyzed as having final о and , not  and , because of vowel-reduction. See дбо дб, both phonetic [dóbrEjE] (not *[dóbrEjı˘]), suggesting -оо, -. 12.2.4. OLD MOSCOW NORMS Under the Old Moscow pronunciation norm, the unstressed Nsg. masc. ending spelled -  is pronounced /-aj/ [-Ej], as though there were a single underlying Nsg. masc. ending {-oj}, reducing to /-aj/ when unstressed. For example, Lermontov rhymes Psg. fem. длко with Nsg. masc. одк. Under this interpretation and norm, Nsg. masc. - /- is merely an idiosyncratic way of spelling unstressed -о. Also under the Old Moscow norm, the unstressed Asg. fem. ending is treated as though it were -ою or, after a soft consonant, -ю: дбую [dóbrEju], сюю /säínäiju/. It has been claimed that the pronunciation of -  as [-Ej] is staging a comeback. 12.2.5. MASC.-NEUT. GSG. The masc.-neut. Gsg. ending spelled -ого is pronounced as though the ending were -оо {-ovo}: дбого /dóbrava/, уго /čužóva/. Only in a few indeclinable last names based on this ending is the letter  actually used, e.g., Дуо /durnavó/. 12.2.6. ARCHAIC ISG. FEMININE 241 12.2.6. ARCHAIC ISG. FEMININE An archaic Isg. fem. ending -ою {-oju} may be encountered in nineteenthcentury and earlier literature, especially in poetry. 12.2.7. OBLIQUE FORMS OF SOFT STEMS After soft-stem adjectives, an unstressed initial vowel of the ending before soft or labial consonants typically reduces to phonetic [ı˘], not expected [E˘]: сго /säínäiva/ [säínäı˘vE], сму /säínäimu/ [säínäı˘mu], см /säínäim/ [säínäı˘m], с /säínäij/ [säínäı˘j]. A possible conclusion is that the endings here are actually - го - му -  {-′evo -′emu -′ej}, etc. The Old Moscow norm shows [E˘] here, suggesting -ого -ому -о. 12.2.8. NPL. ENDING -ы The Npl. ending spelled -  is judged to be - {-ije} on the basis of vowelreduction : [dóbryjı˘]; however, [dóbryjE˘] can also be heard, suggesting - о {-ijo}. 12.3. STRUCTURAL TYPES OF ADJECTIVES Most basic adjectives consist of a root=stem to which the adjective endings are added directly. Adjectives based on other parts of speech usually feature a derivational suffix falling between the root and the ending. Exceptions are adjectives based mostly on body-parts, where one may consider the derivational suffix to be -#- (null), as in ог (ог), одобк (бк), дугл  (гл), ло  (); and so on. Some other adjective-forming suffixes are: -ь§§ - A general-purpose suffix for forming adjectives from nouns: д , лд , !д , etc. Velar consonants and ц, as expected, mutate before the suffix: к  (кг),   (к), ко  (коц), о"д!#  ("ду ). -о- Another general-purpose suffix for forming adjectives from nouns, especially animals and plants, but not only: сло , г , дод, ол. -(#)ь§§ - Forms adjectives usually referring to time and time-periods: с, ", д. The # is used with adverbs: "д#, #. 242 12. ADJECTIVE DECLENSION -ъ§§ ск- Forms adjectives mainly from places: гоодск, !сск, лск ($лг). This suffix combines with stems in к to produce adjectives in -цк-: кулцк (кулк). It combines with -о- in last names to form adjectives like глск, ск, etc. -ск- Forms a wide array of technical adjectives: оск, гск, соцлсск, etc. A number of suffixes form adjectives denoting characteristics, including -- (л ), -л- (ссл ), -- ("д! ), -- (ог ), -о- (глу о ), -с- (боодс ), -с- (кс ). Diminutive adjectives, in the sense ‘tiny’, ‘cute’, ‘extremely’ are formed with the suffix -к- (after velars, sometimes -ок-): к,  ок or   к (note lack of...


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