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8 NEUTER SECONDDECLENSION NOUNS 8.1. ENDINGS OF THE NEUTER SECOND DECLENSION Morphophonemic Singular Plural N -o -a (-i) G -a -Ø (-ov, -′ ′ ′ ′ej) D -u -am A =N I -om -am′ ′ ′ ′i P -′ ′ ′ ′e (-′ ′ ′ ′i) -ax Technical Orthographic Singular Plural N -о - (-) G - -ъ§§ (-о, -) D -у -м A =N I -ом -м P - (- ) - 8.2. NOTES ON THE NEUTER SECOND DECLENSION 8.2.1. BASIC ENDINGS Basic neuter-gender second-declension endings are the same as those of the masculine second declension except for the NAsg., NApl., and Gpl. All neuter nouns (including neuter third-declension nouns) have identical NAsg. and identical NApl. The Gsg. is usually the same as the NApl. in 8.2.1. BASIC ENDINGS 179 ending, if not necessarily as to place of stress. Neuter nouns do not have second Genitive (G2) or Prepositional (P2) endings. 8.2.2. SOFT AND HUSHING STEMS Endings beginning with or consisting of spelled - or - in the NAsg., Isg., rarely in the Gpl. can represent the combination of -о after a preceding soft paired consonant: л {póläo} ← ол +о or -о after : д  ← д +о {zdánäijo},  {pitäjó} ← +. The spelling - can, in addition, represent unstressed -о following a hushing consonant or ц, as in лм {lóžom} ← л+ом. Endings spelled with - or -ю indicate that the preceding consonant is either soft or is . For example, Gsg. л {póläa}, Dsg. лю {póläu} represent л +, л +у; Gsg. ул Dsg. улю represent ул+, ул+у; and so forth. 8.2.3. NOUNS IN -иé A few nouns of Church Slavonic origin have stressed NAsg. in - , for example ,   , б ,  ; compare native-stock ос ,  . 8.2.4. PSG. IN The Psg. ending - {-′e} is spelled ; see ок ← ок . 8.2.5. PSG. IN -и The Psg. ending - occurs with stems in - - {-′ij-}: д  Psg. д {zdánäiji} ← д + . An exception occurs when the ending is stressed: ос Psg. ос . By contrast, the few Church-Slavonic nouns in stressed -  have Psg. clearly in - {-′i}:    Psg.   . Words in NAsg. -  may be found in a shortened form in -, especially in poetry, e.g., л {želan′jo}. In such instances, the Psg. will usually be - when unstressed , although - is allowable; hence either Psg. л /žilánäji/ [žylánäji] or л /žilánäje/ [žylánäjı˘]. 8.2.6. ROOTS CONTAINING Many neuter second-declension nouns contain underlying {-′o} in the root, revealed when the noun undergoes a stress shift from sg.-end to pl.stem as in бд NApl. б д, д NApl.  д, and others. Contrast with мсо NApl. мс, with non-alternating  (i.e., ) in the root. 180 8. NEUTER SECOND-DECLENSION NOUNS 8.2.7. NAPL. IN -ы SPELLED -и The NApl. ending -, {-i} occurs with a few stems in к, and so is always spelled - ; see ко NApl. к , лко NApl. лк , !блоко, NApl. !блок . This ending occurs regularly with diminutives in -ко: бю"к NApl. бю"к, д ко NApl. д к ; ок"ко NApl. ок"к ; о#к NApl. о#к; у"к NApl. у"к. Augmentatives in - have alternative NApl. in - , e.g., дом NApl. дом or дом . 8.2.8. NAPL. IN -и The NApl. ending - occurs (together with a full set of third-declension pl. endings) with коло in the sense ‘knees’; compare кол ‘nodes’, кол ‘bifurcations’, ‘branchings’. Third-declension pl. endings have also attached themselves to three other neuter nouns referring to paired bodyparts : ко # , $ о $" , л# л# ; see illustrations to follow. 8.2.9. GPL. IN -ов The Gpl. ending -о {-ov}, often respelled -, occurs primarily with nouns forming the plural with the suffix -- (д NApl. д Gpl. д;  NApl.  Gpl. ; коло NApl. кол ‘nodes’ Gpl. кол; кл NApl. кл Gpl. кл;  NApl.  Gpl. ; оло NApl. ол Gpl. ол; "ло NApl. "л Gpl. "л; also л NApl. л Gpl. л, with -- in both stems. Neuter-noun diminutives with NApl. in stressed -к also tend to take Gpl. in -, for example бю"к NApl. бю"к Gpl. бю"к, о#к NApl. о#к Gpl. о#к; у"к, NApl. у"к Gpl. у"к. Otherwise, this ending is rare with neuters, but cf. болц NApl. болц Gpl. болц (vs. regular олоц NApl. олоц Gpl. олоц); л# ко NApl. л# к Gpl. л# ко; блко NApl. облк Gpl. облк; л# ко NApl. л# к Gpl. л# ко; с$до NApl. суд Gpl. суд. 8.2.10. GPL. IN -ей Besides ко, л#, and $ о, which have third-declension endings throughout the plural, the Gpl. ending - occurs with the soft-stem nouns м Gpl. мо ← мо +π, л Gpl. ол ← ол +π, and with # Gpl. #. 8.2.11. MOBILE VOWELS 181 8.2.11. MOBILE VOWELS A mobile vowel may appear in the Gpl. before the ending -ъ§§ {-Ø}, as in ок, Gpl. ко ← ок|+ъ§§ ; клц Gpl. клц ← кл|ц+ъ§§ . The mobile vowel also appears in at least one neuter word with the plural extension -ь§§ -, as д NApl. д. Before , the unstressed mobile vowel can be spelled e as in у Gpl. $, but more often as in оскс Gpl. оскс , ко  Gpl. к , о Gpl. о , ул Gpl. ул . The noun ц Gpl. ц is unique in having stressed mobile . 8.2.12. STRUCTURAL TYPES Commonly encountered structural types in the neuter second-declension declension, given at the upper- (u), mid- (m), and lower (l) morphophonemic levels, are: Simplex Stems --stems -ь§§ -stems -stems лоо* м ко    u: ло-о м--о ко -ь§§ - -- -о m: “ “ м -о ко ь§§ -  -о l: {zóloto} {móräo} {kopäjó} {znánäijo} -ь§§ к-stems -ъ§§ C-stems -ь§§ C-stems -ь§§ с-stems б%"к ок д мсо u: б& -ь§§ к-о ок-ъ§§ -  д-ь§§§§ -  м-ь§§ с-о m: б&"ь§§ к-о окъ§§ -  д-  мс-о: мс-о l: {bräúško} {oknó} {väodró} {zäémstvo} 8.2.13. STRESS...


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