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6 FIRST-DECLENSION NOUNS By a noun of the first declension is meant a declined noun with Nsg. in - {-a}. Most nouns of the first declension are feminine in gender, meaning that they take feminine adjective and past-tense verb agreement, and are referred to with the feminine pronoun о. However, a few are names for masculine persons (му , д, слуг, суд, ддук, дд, о) or are masculine nicknames (B , Bолд, л, С, Кл), and so are masculine in gender and take masculine agreement (and are referred to with the masculine pronoun ). Some first-declension nouns, like уб ц, м ц, and с о are epicenes (common-gender nouns, masculine or feminine depending on reference to males or females). Pejorative epicenes like у ц ‘dunce’ in reference to males can be either masculine or, especially deprecatingly, feminine. 6.1. ENDINGS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION Morphophonemic Singular Plural N -a -i G -i -Ø (-′ ′ ′ ′ej) D -′ ′ ′ ′e (-′ ′ ′ ′i) -am A -u N/G, according to animacy I -oj (-oju) -am′ ′ ′ ′i P -′ ′ ′ ′e (-′ ′ ′ ′i) -ax (V -#) Technical Orthographic Singular Plural N - -" G -" -ъ§§ (- ) D -$ (- ) -% A -у N/G, according to animacy I -о (-о&) -% P -$ (- ) -' (V -#) 146 6. FIRST-DECLENSION NOUNS 6.2. NOTES ON THE FIRST DECLENSION 6.2.1. SYNCRETISMS The Dsg. and Psg. of a first-declension noun always have the same form, with no exceptions. The Gsg. and Npl. are the same as to ending, but not necessarily as to stress. The Npl. and Apl. are the same for inanimate nouns; for animate nouns, the Gpl. and the Apl. are the same. Firstdeclension noun do not have different stems in the sg. and pl., as often occurs among nouns of the second declension, an exception being к ц Npl. к " GApl. к . 6.2.2. SOFT STEMS Endings with spelled - or -ю indicate that the stem consonant is either a soft paired consonant or is . For example, Nsg. (л, Asg. (лю represent (л + {vóläa}, (л +у {vóläu}; Nsg. кол , Asg. кол  represent кол + {koläejá}, кол + {koläejú}. 6.2.3. SPELLED ENDING -и In the Gsg. or Npl., the spelled ending - may indicate a soft paired stemconsonant (Gsg. (л {vóläi} ← (л +") or stem-final  (с у {strují} ← с у+)); it may be produced by spelling conventions after , , *,  (Gsg. с(  ← с($+)); or it may reflect the softening of к, г, ' before -", as in Gsg. ук {rukí} ← ук+). 6.2.4. INSTRUMENTAL SG. -ой, -ою The Isg. in -о when respelled as -+ or, unstressed, as -  may indicate a soft paired stem-consonant or stem-final -, as in с м+ {säemäjój} ← с м|+, дл  {dóläoj} ← дл +о. The spelled Isg. ending -  may, in addition, represent unstressed -о following a hushing consonant or ц, as in к  {kášoj} ← к+о, л ц  {úläicoj} ← л ц+о. In older literary texts, especially in poetry for the sake of a verse pattern or rhyme, the Isg. ending may occur as -ою (- ю, -+ю). 6.2.5. DATIVE-PREPOSITIONAL ENDING -, (-e) The DPsg. ending -$ {-′e} is spelled - ; see ук ← ук+$. 6.2.6. DATIVE-PREPOSITIONAL ENDING -и 147 6.2.6. DATIVE-PREPOSITIONAL ENDING -и The DPsg. ending - {-′i} occurs with stems in -:  м  {armäija}, stem  м - {armäij-}, DPsg.  м {armäiji}, Соф , DPsg. Соф . That the ending is really - {-′i}, and not just a spelled variant of unstressed -$ {-′e}, is evident from the fact that it does not reduce to phonetic [ı˘], as does -$ {-′ ′ ′ ′e}, but remains [i]. 6.2.7. THE VOCATIVE First-declension nicknames and relation-names used as forms of address may form an informal, usually affectionate, vocative by using the bare stem: Bолд V Bолд, Кл, V Кл, / V /. This form is highly colloquial but commonly used, less so with velar stems. The Vocative ending -# does not prompt a mobile vowel, as does the Gpl. ending -ъ; compare Gpl. ббу к ← ббу|к-ъ§§ to V ббук ← ббу|к-#. For greater expressivity, a final voiced consonant may not undergo devoicing: 0д, V 0д /näa'dä/ or /näa'tä/. The presense of final voicing has been used to suggest that the Vocative is formed from the Nominative by clipping off the - ending after the devoicing rule has ceased to operate. Masculine names used vocatively can also show lack of voicing, as Глб /gläe'b/, where, arguably, lack of devoicing is part of the expressivity of the Vocative. 6.2.8. ROOTS WITH + A number of first-declension nouns show an underlying + {-′o} in the root, revealed when the stress shifts to the root in the plural, e.g., ( с, NApl. (+с". Compare this to с л NApl. с л", with underlying $ {-′e}, spelled . 6.2.9. ANIMATE NOUNS First-declension nouns referring to animate beings take Apl. like the Gpl., as  , GApl +. 6.2.10. THE BARE-STEM GENITIVE PLURAL In the Gpl. when the ending is -ъ§§ {-Ø} and the consonant is a soft paired consonant, the letter  marks the consonant as soft (e.g., б  {burä} ← б  +ъ§§ ). When the stem consonant is {j},  appears on...


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