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ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS N nominative sg. singular number G genitive pl. plural number D dative masc. or m. masculine gender A accusative neut. or n. neuter gender I instrumental fem. or f. feminine gender P prepositional an. animate L locative inan. inanimate V vocative s.f. (l.f.) short (long)-form adjective pf. perfective verb indet. indeterminate verb impf. imperfective verb trans. transitive verb det. determinate verb intrans. intransitive verb C Consonant V Vowel PC Plain Consonant PV Plain Vowel Letter SC Soft Consonant IV Iotated Vowel Letter HC Hushing Consonant HFV Historical Front Vowel VC Velar Consonant HBV Historical Back Vowel A→ B or A: B “A goes to B” A←B “A derives from B A↓B “A is replaced by B” A~B “A predictably alternates with B” *A “A is a non-occurring, hypothetical, reconstructed, or incorrect form.” !A “A is an unusual form.” {a} morphophonemic representation {′a ′e ′i ′o ′u} softening vowel morphophonemes, paired with non-softening {a e i o u} { äa äe äi äo äu} lower-level vowel morphophonemes after a soft consonant /a/ phonemic representation [a] phonetic representation ...


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