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247 Notes Chapter 1: What Is the Foreign Service? 1. Clinton, Statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 2. Ibid. 3. Clinton, Remarks before the House Appropriations Subcommittee. 4. Rice, Remarks at Georgetown School of Foreign Service. 5. Rice, Confirmation Hearings before Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Chapter 2: History 1. Acheson, Present at the Creation, 303. 2. Grove, Behind Embassy Walls, 95. 3. Kissinger, White House Years, 11. 4. Conversation between Nixon and Kissinger, November 13, 1972, quoted in Humphrey , Foreign Relations of the United States, 768. 5. Foreign service officers in the Nixon White House included Frank Carlucci (later secretary of defense), Lawrence Eagleburger (secretary of state), Anthony Lake (national security adviser), Winston Lord (ambassador to China), John Negroponte (deputy secretary of state), Peter Rodman (assistant secretary of defense), and Harold Saunders (assistant secretary of state). 6. In 1792, when Congress passed the first law regulating consuls and their duties, the United States had five diplomatic and sixteen consular posts abroad. By 1860, the numbers had grown to 33 and 279. When no American was available, consular commissions were sometimes given to third-country nationals. 7. Consular salaries varied by post. At Cobiya, in the Mexican state of Tabasco, the salary was $500. At Liverpool, it was $7,500. Consuls receiving a salary greater than $1,500 were prohibited from engaging in mercantile business, although other private enterprise remained open to them. See Stuart, American Diplomatic and Consular Practice, 168. 8. Quoted by Ambassador Charles Freeman in a speech to the American Foreign Service Association Club, January 11, 1995, and provided to the author by the American Academy of Diplomacy. 9. Quoted in Stuart, American Diplomatic and Consular Practice, 174. 10. Some writers ridiculed consuls, but others benefited from consular appointments, which were a form of federal support for artistic achievement. A list of nineteenthcentury writers who served as consuls includes Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Fenimore Cooper, James Weldon Johnson, William Dean Howells, and Bret Harte. It was Howells’s lobbying of President Rutherford B. Hayes, a relation by marriage, that secured the washed-up, alcoholic Harte the consulship in Munich. Kaplan, Singular Mark Twain, 335. Henry Adams served as private secretary to the minister of the American legation in London, his father, Charles Francis Adams. President Abraham Lincoln, who sent Charles Francis Adams to London, asked his secretary of state to use consular positions to “facilitate artists a little [in] their profession.” Goodwin, Team of Rivals, 703. 248 Notes to Pages 12–17 11. Trask, Short History, 22. 12. Bierce, Devil’s Dictionary, 18. 13. Adams, Education of Henry Adams, 1080. 14. Trask, Short History, 26. 15. Quoted in Barnes and Morgan, Foreign Service of the United States, 207. The U.S. Foreign Service is not alone in its image problem. A senior British career diplomat, Sir David Gore-Booth, remarked in 1999 that “one of the great failures of the Diplomatic Service has been its inability to cast off its image as bowler-hatted, pin-striped and chinless with a fondness for champagne.” Cited in Bryson, “Ambassadors Going Out with a Bang.” 16. Stimson’s diary account of a conversation with FDR on January 9, 1933, cited in Morgan, FDR: A Biography, 368–69. Stimson was President Hoover’s secretary of state before becoming Roosevelt’s secretary of war; the conversation with Roosevelt cited here took place before Roosevelt’s first inauguration. 17. Trask, Short History, 29. 18. LaRue Lutkins, interview by Charles Stuart Kennedy, cited in Morgan and Kennedy , American Diplomats, 46. George Kennan, too old for the draft himself, wrote that the department told foreign service officers to apply to their draft boards for deferments on their own; the department, for fear of congressional criticism, would not apply on their behalf. The press, he wrote, “repeatedly carried articles charging them, sometimes individually and by name, with being draft dodgers.” Kennan, Memoirs, 140–41. 19. Mee, Marshall Plan, 215–16. 20. Kennan, Memoirs, 191–92. 21. Lauren, China Hands’ Legacy, 13. Hiss was tried and convicted of perjury in 1950 but was never charged with espionage. Readers who wonder about the disparity between the large number dismissed for security concerns and the relatively small number believed to be involved with foreign powers may safely conclude that many were dismissed as security risks because they were believed to be homosexual. 22. There is no known recording or printed text of McCarthy’s speech as delivered. This quote comes from an account by a reporter who was...


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