restricted access 1. Principles of Speechreading
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Introduction Excellent discussions of the history of deaf education can be found in Deland (1968), Berger (1972), and Moores (1978). Adult Speechreading Programs UntH the 1890s the teaching of speechreading was largely limited to children as part of oral deaf education. At that time, however, some schools began to allow adults to participate along with the children. Very quickly, many speechreading teachers began to focus their attention on hard-of-hearing adults, and as a result four speechreading methods developed. All of our present procedures have evolved from these speechreading systems. Around the beginning of the twentieth century, leagues for the hard of hearing began to form. These groups became powerful social service agencies for the hearing impaired. Some of the leagues were founded by well-known speechreading teachers who, together with hearing-impaired graduates of speechreading programs, became the first members. The earliest league was the New York League for the Hard of Hearing, founded in 1910 by Edward Nitchie and others. To this day, speechreading training offered by the New York League takes many of its ideas from the Nitchie speechreading method. Some of the goals of this organization were and still are 1. to establish organizations for the hard of hearing in the community; 2. to establish speechreading classes in the public schools for children and adults; 3. to encourage hearing testing of young children in the schools; 4. to encourage employers to hire deaf people; 5. to encourage hearing aid research; 6. to reach out to and provide services for isolated deaf people; 7. to cooperate in research into causes of deafness; 8. to encourage prevention of deafness; 9. to provide public education about deafness; 10. to function as an advocate for hearing-impaired people; 11. to provide hearing testing, hearing aid evaluations, speech, speechreading and listening training, and communication counseling. The New York League served as a prototype for similar organizations throughout the country. In 1919 the groups united to form the American Association for the Hard of Hearing; it later changed its name to the National Association of Hearing and Speech Agencies (NAHSA) and still later to the National Association of Hearing and Speech Action. The community organizations that are xii Introduction Excellent discussions of the history of deaf education can be found in Deland (1968), Berger (1972), and Moores (1978). Adult Speechreading Programs Until the 1890s the teaching of speechreading was largely limited to children as part of oral deaf education. At that time, however, some schools began to allow adults to participate along with the children. Very quickly, many speechreading teachers began to focus their attention on hard-of-hearing adults, and as a result four speechreading methods developed. All of our present procedures have evolved from these speechreading systems. Around the beginning of the twentieth century, leagues for the hard of hearing began to form. These groups became powerful social service agencies for the hearing impaired. Some of the leagues were founded by well-known speechreading teachers who, together with hearing-impaired graduates of speechreading programs, became the first members. The earliest league was the New York League for the Hard of Hearing, founded in 1910 by Edward Nitchie and others. To this day, speechreading training offered by the New York League takes many of its ideas from the Nitchie speechreading method. Some of the goals of this organization were and still are 1. to establish organizations for the hard of hearing in the community; 2. to establish speechreading classes in the public schools for children and adults; 3. to encourage hearing testing of young children in the schools; 4. to encourage employers to hire deaf people; 5. to encourage hearing aid research; 6. to reach out to and provide services for isolated deaf people; 7. to cooperate in research into causes of deafness; 8. to encourage prevention of deafness; 9. to provide public education about deafness; 10. to function as an advocate for hearing-impaired people; 11. to provide hearing testing, hearing aid evaluations, speech, speechreading and listening training, and communication counseling. The New York League served as a prototype for similar organizations throughout the country. In 1919 the groups united to form the American Association for the Hard of Hearing; it later changed its name to the National Association of Hearing and Speech Agencies (NAHSA) and still later to the National Association of Hearing and Speech Action. The community organizations that are Xll Introduction members of NAHSA provide a great deal of professional service to hearingimpaired people, and NAHSA...


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