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430 BOOK FIFTY/RELEASE FROM MUNERA erans. 30. Both the deified Vespasian and the deified Hadrian issued rescripts to the effect that teachers who are released from civil munera and grammarians and orators and doctors and philosophers had been granted immunity from billeting by the emperors. RELEASE AND EXEMPTION FROM MUNERA 1 ULPIAN,Opinions, book 2: Every dispensation rests on its own equity. But if credit is given to those who make some claim, without anyone judging the issues, or permission is given at random to everyone to excuse themselves as they please without prescription of time, there will be no one to undertake necessary munera in the various communities. So even those who claim for themselves dispensation from civil munera on the grounds of possessing living sons must lodge an appeal and those who have not observed the prescribed times in carrying out the process of an appeal of that kind are rightly debarred under this rule. 1. Those who enjoy some dispensation must appeal every time they are appointed, even if they have already been let off. But if the same adversary is shown to be repeatedly appointing someone to bring him into ill repute, in order to trouble a man whom he knows to rest his case on a permanent exemption, he is to be ordered to pay the costs of the case, in line with the decrees of the emperors , to the man whom he has repeatedly troubled without cause. 2. Those who in order to deprive the ordo of its due in holding of office, when they were reckoned among those in the community who could be appointed to the highest offices, to avoid greater burdens have transferred themselves to the status of tenants of properties, in order to be subject to lesser burdens, have failed to achieve this dispensation for themselves. 3. Although someone is sixty-five years old and has three living sons, nonetheless, he is not as a result freed from civil munera. 2 ULPIAN,Opinions, book 3: It is not right for someone in his sixteenth year to be called upon for the munus of sitonia. But if there is no specific provision in the community about appointing even those under twenty-five to munera or offices, the proper age qualification is to be observed. 1. The number of children or the age of seventy does not provide dispensation from office or the munera attaching thereto, but only from civil munera. 2. Adoptive sons do not count toward the number of those sons, who regularly provide a dispensation for their parents. 3. Those who are called upon to perform munera must prove that they have the proper number of living children at the time when they wish to be excused on their account; for if the number of children is achieved later, this does not free a man from munera already undertaken. 4. Patrimonial burdens attract no dispensation because of the number of children. 5. Free children, even if they have ceased to be in the power of their father, provide a dispensation from civil munera. 6. Someone who is partially deaf does not have immunity from civil munera. 7. If the governor realizes that someone is so weighed down by old age and bodily infirmity that he cannot discharge the munus of transporting money, he should release him and appoint a replacement. 7a. Bodily infirmity provides an excuse from those munera which are discharged merely by bodily activity. But those which can be carried out by the mental application of a sensible man or with the patrimony of a man who is sufficiently well endowed for this purpose are not remitted except for clear and agreed demonstrable reasons. 8. Those who teach children to begin to read and write do not have immunity from civil munera. But it is the duty of the governor to see that nothing which is beyond their strength is assigned to any of them whether they are masters in the communities themselves or in the villages. 3 SCAEVOLA, Rules, book 3: Exemption from any public munus is granted by reason of their ship to anyone who has built a sea-going ship and provided it for the transport of the corn supply of the Roman people, provided it is of not less than fifty thousand 430 BOOK FIFTY IRELEASE FROM MUNERA erans. 30. Both the deified Vespasian and the deified Hadrian issued rescripts to the effect that teachers who are released from civil munera and...