22. COLLEGIA AND ASSOCIATIONS
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BOOK FORTY-SEVENICOLLEGIA REMOVAL OF A BOUNDARY STONE 1 MODESTINUS, Rules, book 8: There is no pecuniary penalty for uprooting boundary stones, but punishment is administered according to the rank of the offender. 2 CALLISTRATUS, Judicial Examinations, book 3: The deified Hadrian issued a rescript in the following form: "There can be no doubt that those who move stones set to mark boundaries are guilty of a most heinous act. The extent of the penalty, however, should be determined in the light of the rank and intent of the offender. If those convicted be of high rank, they have doubtless done it to encroach on someone else's land, and they may be relegated for a period accordingto their age;thus, if they be young, it will be a longer period, if they be elderly, shorter. But if the offenders be acting on behalf of another and performing some service, they are to be beaten and sent to forced labor for two years. If they appropriate the stones through ignorance or casually, it is enough that they be thrashed." 3 CALLISTRATUS, Judicial Examinations, book 5: A pecuniary penalty is imposed upon those who deliberately move established boundary stones out of their position and territory under the agrarian statute introduced by Gaius Caesar; for the statute provides that fifty gold pieces shall be paid to the public treasury for each stone thrown away or moved and that anyone who wishes may bring the proceedings. 1. Another agrarian law, introduced by the deified Nerva, provides that if a slave, male or female, should deliberately so act without the knowledge of his or her owner, he or she is to be put to death unless the master or mistress be prepared to accept a fine. 2. Those, again, who, to confuse boundary issues, change the face of the land, for example, making a plantation out of tilled land or making arable land of a wood or doing something else of the sort, will be punished according to their rank and degree and the violence of what they have done. COLLEGIA AND ASSOCIATIONS 1 MARCIAN, Institutes, book 3: Provincial governors are directed by imperial instructions not to tolerate secret social collegia and that soldiers are not to form collegia in camp. But the lower orders are allowed to pay a small monthly fee, provided that they meet only once a month, lest an unlawful association be created under this guise. And the deified Severus stated in a rescript that this applies not only at Rome but also in Italy and the provinces. 1. There is, however, no ban on assembly for religious purposes , so long as there is no contravention of the senatus consulturn which prohibits unlawful collegia. 2. It is not permitted to belong to more than one collegium, as 306 BOOK FORTY-SEVEN / COLLEGIA 21 REMOVAL OF ABOUNDARY STONE 1 MODESTINUS, Rules, book 8: There is no pecuniary penalty for uprooting boundary stones, but punishment is administered according to the rank of the offender. 2 CALLISTRATUS, Judicial Examinations, book 3: The deified Hadrian issued a rescript in the following form: "There can be no doubt that those who move stones set to mark boundaries are guilty ofa most heinous act. The extent of the penalty, however, should be determined in the light of the rank and intent of the offender. If those convicted be of high rank, they have doubtless done it to encroach on someone else's land, and they may be relegated for a period according to their age; thus, ifthey be young, it will be a longer period, if they be elderly, shorter. But if the offenders be acting on behalfofanother and performing some service, they are to be beaten and sent to forced labor for two years. If they appropriate the stones through ignorance or casually, it is enough that they be thrashed." 3 CALLISTRATUS, Judicial Examinations, book 5: A pecuniary penalty is imposed upon those who deliberately move established boundary stones out of their position and territory under the agrarian statute introduced by Gaius Caesar; for the statute provides that fifty gold pieces shall be paid to the public treasury for each stone thrown away or moved and that anyone who wishes may bring the proceedings. 1. Another agrarian law, introduced by the deified Nerva, provides that if a slave, male or female, should deliberately so act without the knowledge of his or her owner, he or she is to be put to death unless the master...