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Illustrations Figure 3.1. Map of Egypt, showing major towns and provinces 68 Figure 4.1. Map of Yemen in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 80 Figure 6.1. An Ottoman tu¶—eighteenth century 113 Figure 6.2. A Mamluk c alem—sixteenth century 115 Figure 6.3. The Battle of Chaldiran, 1514 120 Figure 11.1. An Ottoman Zülfikar banner—sixteenth century 173 xiii This page intentionally left blank. ...

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