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. Mrs. H. L. Porter to Roy Wilkins, November , , reel , frames –, NAACP Papers (Microfilm, Maryland). . On the black elite in Little Rock and Arkansas, see Willard B. Gatewood, Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite, – (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ); John William Graves, Town and Country: Race Relations in an Urban/Rural Context, Arkansas, – (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, ); Fon Louise Gordon, Caste and Class: The Black Experience in Arkansas, – (Athens: University of Georgia Press, ); Tom Dillard,“Perseverance: Black History in Pulaski County, Arkansas—An Excerpt,” Pulaski County Historical Review  (Winter ): –. . On politics in Arkansas in the s, see V. O. Key Jr., Southern Politics in State and Nation (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ). . John A. Hibbler to William T. Andrews, September , ; William T. Andrews to John A. Hibbler, June , , both in group I, series D, container , folder “Cases Supported—Arkansas Primary Case –,” NAACP Papers (Washington, D.C.). . Walter White to Arthur Spingarn, November , , miscellaneous correspondence , –, –, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (Arkansas) Papers, Microfilm, Special Collections Division, University of Arkansas Libraries, Fayetteville (hereafter cited as NAACP Papers [Microfilm, Fayetteville]). . Arkansas Gazette, November , . . William T. Andrews to John A. Hibbler, July , , group I, series D, container , folder “Cases Supported—Arkansas Primary Case –,” NAACP Papers (Washington, D.C.); Darlene Clark Hine, Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas (Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, ), ; John A. Kirk, “Dr. John Marshall Robinson, the Arkansas Negro Democratic Association, and Black Politics in Little Rock, –,” in Beyond Little Rock: The Origins and Legacies of the Central High Crisis (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, ), –. . On blacks and the New Deal, see Allen Kiefer,“The Negro under the New Deal” (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, ); Barton J. Bernstein,“The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform,” in Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, ed. Baton J. Bernstein (New York: Pantheon Books, ), – (quoted page ); Bernard Sternsher, ed., The Negro in Depression and War: Prelude to Revolution, – (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, ); Raymond Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression: The Problem of Economic Recovery (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, ); Christopher G. Wye,“The New Deal and the Negro Community: Toward a Broader Conceptualization ,” Journal of American History (December ): –; Ralph J. Bunche, The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ); Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: Volume : The Depression Decade (New York: Oxford University Press, ); John B. Kirby, Black Americans in the Roosevelt Era: Liberalism and Race (Knoxville: Tennessee University Press, ); Nancy J. Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ); Patricia Sullivan, Days of Hope: Race and Democracy in the New Deal Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ); and Kevin J. McMahon,  Notes to Pages – 1VERNEY_pages:Layout 1 10/7/09 11:54 AM Page 294 Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the Presidency Paved the Road to Brown (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ). . On blacks and World War II, see Harvard Sitkoff,“Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War,” Journal of American History  (June ): –; John Morton Blum, V Was for Victory: Politics and American Culture during World War II (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, ); Richard M. Dalfumie, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, – (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, ); Merle E. Reed, Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement: The President’s Committee on Fair Employment Practice, – (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, ); and Neil A. Wynn, The Afro-American and the Second World War (London: Paul Elek, ). . William Pickens to W. H. Flowers, May , , group II, series C, container , folder “Pine Bluff, Ark., –,” NAACP Papers (Washington, D.C.). . Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (New York: Random House, ), ; Arkansas Gazette, July , . . Arkansas Gazette, July , . For a portrait of black Pine Bluff in the age of segregation, see George Lipsitz, Ivory Perry and the Culture of Opposition (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, ), –. . W. H. Flowers to Walter White, October , , William Harold Flowers Papers, privately held in possession of Stephanie Flowers, Pine Bluff, Arkansas (hereafter cited as Flowers Papers). . Charles Houston to W. H. Flowers, November , ; Thurgood Marshall to W. H. Flowers, April , , both in Flowers Papers. . Press Release, n.d., Flowers Papers. . The CNO Spectator, July , , Flowers Papers. . The CNO Spectator, July , , Flowers Papers. . Arkansas State Press, September , . . Arkansas State Press, March , . . Thomas E. Patterson, History of the Arkansas Teachers Association (Washington...


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