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INDEX Abington School District v. Schempp, 70 abolitionism, 14, 50 abortion, 21, 41, 217, 233–36. See also Roe v. Wade Abrams v. United States, 52 accommodationist approach to religion, 69, 75, 77 ACLU v. NSA, 268n41 “actual malice” standard, 230 Adams, John, 10, 153 Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 205–206 Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, 35 administrative searches, 156–57 admissions standards, 196, 206–207 advertising, 60–62 affirmative action, 190–212; background, 190–91; and civil rights movement, 212; and Congress, 201–204; contemporary debate on, xi; and cultural change, 211; and equal rights, 209–11; in the 1980s, 197–201; and the nondiscrimination principle, 204–207; and the Rehnquist Court, 207–209; and Title VII, 191–97 African Americans, 17, 20, 277n17 aggravating factors, 183 Agostini v. Felton, 78 Alabama, 77 Alabama Supreme Court, 245, 277n17 alcohol. See Prohibition alcohol advertising, 62 Alien and Sedition Acts, 50 Alito, Samuel, 239, 251 Allen. See Board of Education v. Allen Amar, Akhil, 104 amendment process, 40–41 American Bar Association (ABA), 16–17, 169 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 18, 21, 129 American Law Institute, 229 American Medical Association, 270n24 American Revolution, 10–11, 89, 92, 153–54, 251 Amish communities, 84 Andrews v. State, 98, 99 anti-censorship principle, 50–56, 64–65 anti-communism, 50, 51, 80, 129 anti-evolutionists, 71–72 Anti-Federalists, vii–viii, 12, 32, 50, 93, 241 anti-Semitism, 53 anti-slavery movement, 14, 50 anti-sodomy laws, 41, 236 Anti-Terrorism Act, 224, 226–27 antiwar protests, 53, 224 apportionment, 3 aptitude tests, 194 Arizona v. Evans, 141 Arizona v. Fulminate, 142 Arkansas Supreme Court, 71, 277n17 “as applied” challenges, 185 Asatru, 86 Ashcroft, John, 105 assassinations, 101–102 assault weapons, 102 assembly rights, 12–13 Assize of Arms, 90 Associated Press v. Walker, 230 associational privacy, 226–27 Atlanta, Georgia, 248 Atlanta Olympics, 224 Attorney General’s Task Force on Violent Crime, 139 attorney-client privilege, 230 automobile exception, 158 autonomy, 45, 233–37 Avmette v. State, 101 background checks, 102 Bail Reform Act, 140 Bakke v. Regents of the University of California , 196, 206, 209, 211 Page numbers in bold indicate primary treatment of subjects. ballot initiatives, 206. See also referenda Barker, “Ma,” 100 Barron, John, 242 Barron v. Baltimore, viii, 32–33, 94, 150, 242 Barrow, Clyde, 100 Bartnicki v. Vopper, 237–38 beachfront properties, 120 Beard, Charles, 18 Belize, Herman, xi Belknap, Michal R., x bench trials, 129, 142 Benner, Laurence A., x Benson, Egbert, 154 Benton v. Maryland, 137 Berger, Raoul, 183 Berkemer v. McCarty, 167 Betts v. Brady, 132 Bible, 71, 78, 163 “Bible Belt” states, 71 Bickel, Alexander M., 36–37 bigamy, 81 Bill of Rights. See specific amendments and concepts Bingham, Jonathan, 96, 243–44 birth control, 39, 41, 217, 233–34, 235. See also Griswold v. Connecticut Black, Hugo: and criminal procedure, 131; and the establishment clause, 67–68; and gun control, 101; and limits of judicial review, 39–40; and privacy rights, 39; and rights consciousness , 20; and separation of church and state, 68, 70, 72–75, 80 black codes, 96, 98 Black Panthers, 224 Blackmun, Harry A.: and affirmative action , 209; and criminal procedure, 144; and the death penalty, 180; and property rights, 120; and reproductive rights, 235; and stare decisis, 145 Blackstone, William, 91 Blaine amendments, 78 Board of Education v. Allen, 74, 75 Board of Motion Pictures Censors, 248 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth, 59–60 Bodenhamer, David J., x bodily privacy, 233–37 Boerne v. Flores, 85 Bolsheviks, 50 Bond v. United States, 141–42 Booth v. Maryland, 145 bootlegging, 99. See also Prohibition Bork, Robert H., 27, 42 Bowers v. Hardwick, 22, 41, 43, 236 Boyd v. United States, 219–20 Boykin v. Alabama, 245 Bradley, Joseph, 219 Brandeis, Louis: and police practices, 170; and political speech, 52–53, 53–54; and privacy rights, 44, 216, 220, 222, 229; and wiretapping, 223 Brandenburg v. Ohio, 53, 55, 59–60, 60–62 Braunfeld v. Brown, 83 Brennan, William: and affirmative action, 198, 199; and criminal procedure, 127, 130–31; and cruel and unusual punishment, 179, 196–97; and the death penalty, 179, 181, 182, 188; and free exercise of religion, 83–84; and police practices, 160; and political speech, 53; and privacy rights, 230; and separation of church and state, 72, 76; and state constitutionalism, 246–47, 251, 253 Breyer, Stephen, 80–81, 187, 208 Britain. See England and Great Britain...

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