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NOTES 1. Rights Consciousness in American History An earlier version of this essay was published in The Bill of Rights in Modern America: After 200 Years, ed. David J. Bodenhamer and James W. Ely, Jr. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). I am grateful to Laura Weinrib for assistance in revision. 1. Sally Engle Merry, Getting Justice and Getting Even: Legal Consciousness among Working-Class Americans (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). 2. For a fuller account: Daniel T. Rodgers, Contested Truths: Keywords in American Politics since Independence (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998). 3. Oscar and Mary Handlin, eds., The Popular Sources of Political Authority: Documents on the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966), 65. 4. The Papers of John Adams, ed. Robert J. Taylor et al., vol. 1 (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977), 137. More generally: T. H. Breen, The Lockean Moment: The Language of Rights on the Eve of the American Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). 5. Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967), 188; Adams, Papers, 127. 6. Gordon S. Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), 63. 7. Handlin, Popular Sources of Political Authority, 202–379. 8. Gordon Lloyd and Margie Lloyd, eds., The Essential Bill of Rights: Original Arguments and Fundamental Doctrines (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1998), 320, 325, 341. 9. Helen E. Veit et al., eds., Creating the Bill of Rights: The Documentary Record from the First Congress (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). 10. Ibid., 300. 11. Lloyd and Lloyd, Essential Bill of Rights, 327. 12. Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 133. 13. John R. Commons et al., eds., A Documentary History of American Industrial Society , 10 vols. (Cleveland, 1910–11), 5:86; 6:94. 14. John L. Thomas, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison (Boston: Little, Brown, 1963), 173. 15. Mary Jo Buhle and Paul Buhle, eds., The Concise History of Woman Suffrage (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1978), 94–95; Angelina E. Grimké, Letters to Catherine E. Beecher (Boston, 1838), 108. 16. Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wallace 110 (1873); Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, 261 U.S. 561 (1923). 17. Quoted in Arnold M. Paul, Conservative Crisis and the Rule of Law: Attitudes of Bar and Bench, 1887–1895 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1960), 81. See also Robert W. Gordon, “Legal Thought and Legal Practice in the Age of American Enterprise, 256 | NOTES TO PAGES 18–31 1870–1920,” in Professions and Professional Ideologies in America, ed. Gerald L. Geison (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983). 18. Woodrow Wilson, Mere Literature and Other Essays (Boston, 1896), 198; A. Lawrence Lowell, Essays on Government (Boston, 1889), 193, 183. 19. Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown (New York, 1929), 198. 20. Charles A. Beard, Politics (New York, 1908), 31. 21. Donald B. Johnson, ed., National Party Platforms, 2 vols. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), 1:175–82, 360–63. 22. Quoted in Henry S. Commager, The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought and Character since the 1880s (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1950), 375. 23. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, ed. Samuel I. Rosenman, 13 vols. (New York: Random House, 1938–50), 13:41–42. 24. Francis L. Broderick and August Meier, eds., Negro Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965), 48–52. 25. Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998); Kenneth Cmiel, “The Recent History of Human Rights,” American Historical Review 109 (2004): 117–35. 26. Quoted in Steve Bruce, “The Inevitable Failure of the New Christian Right,” Sociology of Religion 55 (1994): 230. 27. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971). 28. Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1985). 29. Karl Marx: The EssentialWritings, ed. Frederick L. Bender, 2nd ed. (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1986), 62–63. 2. The Explosion and Erosion of Rights 1. See Mary Ann Glendon, Rights Talk: The Impoverishment of Political Discourse (New York: Free Press, 1991). 2. Thomas Jefferson to Henry Lee, 8 May 1825, in Merrill Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson : Writings (New York: Library of America, 1984), 1501. But in the admiring view of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson in fact achieved far more...


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