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222 / notes 28. [Review of The Portrait of a Lady, by Henry James], Chicago Tribune, 10. 29. “Mr. James’s Latest Novel,” 5. 30. James, The Portrait of a Lady, 33. Subsequent references to the text of the 1908 New York Edition are denoted parenthetically as PL. The Norton edition I used here includes a textual appendix mapping the variations between the 1881 and 1908 editions (493–575). References to the language used in the 1881 edition are indicated parenthetically as PL 1881, and the page number where that variation appears in the textual appendix is cited. 31. “Mr. James’s Latest Novel,” 5. 32. [Review of The Portrait of a Lady, by Henry James, and A Laodicean, by Thomas Hardy], 5. 33. Oliphant, [Review of Henry James’s Portrait of a Lady], 382. 34. Henry James to Charles Scribner’s Sons, 27 January 1908, quoted in Anesko, “Friction with the Market,” 149. 35. James, Preface to Portrait of a Lady, 13. 36. Fuller, “Latest Novel of Henry James,” 4. 37. “Mr. James’s Portrait of a Lady,” 474. Baym, “Revision and Thematic Change in The Portrait of a Lady,” 627. 38. Baym, “Revision and Thematic Change in The Portrait of a Lady,” 634. 39. “Mr. James’s Portrait of a Lady,” 474. 40. Brownell, [Review of Henry James’s Portrait of a Lady], 103. 41. Pilkington, Francis Marion Crawford, i. 42. Crawford, Saracinesca, 4. Subsequent references are denoted parenthetically as S. 43. Crawford, The Novel: What It Is, 11. Subsequent references are denoted parenthetically as NWI. On Crawford’s writing The Novel: What It Is in response to Howells ’s Criticism and Fiction, see Pilkington, Francis Marion Crawford, 110–12. 4 / Misreading The House of Mirth 1. Shari Benstock, in No Gifts from Chance (155), attributes this story to an article in the Detroit Post, 17 November 1906. The Post was actually not in press at that time, and I have been unable to locate the story in any other Detroit paper from the time; the search for the source is ongoing. 2. See Wolff, introduction to The House of Mirth, by Edith Wharton, vii. Further references to The House of Mirth are to the Penguin 1993 edition and are cited parenthetically as HM. See also “Books in Demand,” New York Times Saturday Review of Books, 18 November 1905. 3. The book’s enormous sales figures, along with the circulation records from public libraries, strongly suggest that middle-class readers made up a sizable portion of the audience for The House of Mirth; the upper class alone was not large enough to account for these numbers. For historical definitions of social classes in the early twentieth century, see Ohmann, Selling Culture. 4. Wharton, A Backward Glance, 207. 5. Jauss, Toward an Aesthetic of Reception. 6. Wharton’s abiding interest in the sales of her books is well known and well documented. For a lively discussion of this aspect of her authorial personality, see Lee, notes / 223 Edith Wharton; regarding her dissatisfaction with Scribner’s distribution and marketing of Ethan Frome, see especially 422–25. 7. Certeau, Practice of Everyday Life, 174. 8. Ibid., 166. 9. Peattie, “Mrs. Wharton’s House of Mirth”; Peattie, “Best Fiction of the Year.” 10. “Dust and Ashes.” 11. Ibid. 12. Bentley, The Ethnography of Manners, 184. 13. Ibid., 190. 14. Walter Benn Michaels, to whom Bentley’s readings of The House of Mirth and, more primarily, Custom of the Country, are in part addressed, reads this scene as a moment in which the risk-addicted Lily becomes “only a stand-in for another person who is impersonating her, the person of the writer” (The Gold Standard and the Logic of Naturalism, 240). Candace Waid argues that “the tableau vivant represents the scene of a triumphant woman writing letters, spelling out a word,” and “anticipating or rather scripting the audience’s response as she poses as the self-portrait of the author” (Edith Wharton’s Letters, 43). 15. Shuman, How to Judge a Book, 69. 16. Montgomery, Displaying Women, 165. 17. Ibid., 166. 18. “The House of Mirth,” New York Times Saturday Review of Books, 4 November 1905. When the readers’ forum was devoted to discussion of The House of Mirth, it frequently had the novel’s title as its headline; at other times, there was a different heading, such as “From Readers” or “The Average Reader.” 19. “The House of Mirth,” 18 November 1905. 20. “The House of Mirth,” 25 November 1905. 21. This...


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