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APPENDIX [IJ. 451 and interest, are not without influence, as was hinted in tho enumeration, though they I'egard the speaker only, and not the hearers. '1'he reason is, a person l)rcscnt with us, whom we sec and heal', and who by words, and looks, and gestures, gives the liveliest signs of his feelings, has the smest anclmost immediate claim upon our sympathy. 'We become infected with his passions. Weare lml'rietl along by them, and not allowed leisure to distinguish between his relation and our re.. latiol1, his interest and Om' interest."-Campbell's EnetOliD, pp. 184--190. (book i. chap. 7. § 5. parts 4, 5, 6, 7.) [1.J Pm'! II. Chap. II. § 2. p. 195. A gooel illustration of what has beon said is supplied by the following extract frolIl Mr. Milmau's Hampton Lectures, (Lecture VI. p. 269.)-U Conceive then the apostles of Jesus Christ, the tentmaker or the fisherman, entering, as strangers into one of the splendid cities of Syria, Asia Minor, or Greece. Conceive them, I mean, as unendowed with miraculous powers , having adopted their itinerant system of teaching from human motives, and for human purposes alone. As they pass along to the remote and obscure quartel', where they expect to meet with IJrecal'ious hospitality among theil' countrymen, they stll'vey the strength of the established religion, whic11 it is their avowed purpose to overthrow. EVeI'Y where they be~ hold templcs on which the utmost extravagance of expendi. ture has been lavishecl by succeeding generations; idols of the most exquisite worlo11anship, to which, even if the l'eli. gious feeling of adoration is enfeebled, the people are strongly attached by national 01' local vanity. They meet processions, in which the idle find perpetual occupation, the young excitement , the voluptuous a continual stimulant to their passions. They behold a priesthood, numm'ous, sometimes wealthy; nor are these alone wedded by intcl'Cst to the establishccl faith; many of the trades, like those of the makers of silvel' sln'ines in Ephesus, are pledged to the support of that to which they 452 APPENDIX [1J, owe their maintenance. 'fhey pass a magnificent theatre, on the splendour and success of which the popularity of the existing authorities mainly depends i and in which the serious exhibitions are essentially religious, the lighter as intimately connccted with the indulgence of the basel' passions. They behold another publie building, where cven worse feelings, the cruel and the sanguinary, are pampered by the animating contests of wild beasts and of gladiators, in which they them~ selves may shortly playa dreadful part, Butchel"d to make a Roman holyday I Show and sl)ectaele are the charactCl'istic enjoyments of the whole people, and every show and spectacle is either sacred to the religious feelings, 01' incentive to the lusts of the flesh; those feelings which must be entirely eradicated, those lusts which must be brought into total subjection to the law of Christ. They encounter likewise itinerant jugglers, diviners, magicians, who impose upon the credulous, and excite thc contempt of thc enlightened: in the first case dangerous rivals to those who should attempt to propagate a new faith by imposture and deception; in the latter, naturally tending to pl'ejudice the mind against all miraculous pretensions whatever : here, like Elymas, endeavouring to outdo the signs and wonders of the apostles; there throwing suspicion on all asserted supernatuml agcncy, by the frequency and c1umsi~ ness of their delusions. They meet philosophers, frequently itinerant like themselves; 01' teachers of new religions, priests of Isis and Sel'apis, who have brought into equal discredit what might otherwise have appeal'ed a proof of philanthropy, the performing laborious journeys at the sacrifice of personal ease and comfort for the moral and l'eligious improvemcnt of mankind; or at least have so accustomcd the public mind to similar pretensions, as to take away every attraction from their boldness or novelty. 'rhcl'e are also the teachers of the different mysteries, which would engl'oss all the anxiety of the inquisitive, perhaps excite, even if thcy did not satisfy, the hopes of the more pure and lofty minded. Such must have APPENDIX [I]. 453 been among the obstacles which would force themselves on the calmm' moments of the most ardent; such the overpowering difficulties, of which it 'would be impossible to overlook the importance, 01' elude the force; which l'equired no sober ealculation to estimate, no lahorious inquiry to discover; which...


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