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446 APPENDIX [II]. the common,sympathies amI sensibilitics of human nature? Read such passages as St. Paul's parting address to the elders of Miletus; the same apostle's recommendation of the offending member of the Corinthian Church to pal'clon; and, morc than all, the occasional bursts of conflicting feeling, in which anxious a1)1)1'ohen8ion for the faith and good behaviour of his converts is mixe(l with the pleasing recollection of their conversion , and the minister and the man arc alike strongly dis~ played j amI it will be plain that Christianity exercised no benumbing influence on the heart. No: their whole soul was occupied with one object, which predominated over all the means subservient to it, however great those means might be. In tIle stmm, tfte pilot's eye is jicced on the headlandwIdell must be weaf/tm'ed; in the crisi8 of victory m' (lefeat, the genera/8ees only tlw p08ition to be carried; and tlte dead and tlte inst1'Ument8 of death fall (l1'ound kim unheeded. On the salvation of men, on this one point, the witnesses of Christ and the mi~ nisters of his Spilit, expended all theil' energy of feeling and expression. All that occurred-mischance, persecution, and miracle~were glancecl at by the eye of faith only in subsel'~ "iency to this mark of the prize of their high calling, as work~ ing together fol' good, and all exempt from the associations which would attach to such events and scenes, when contem~ plated by themselves, and with the short~sightedness of uninspired men, Miracles were not to them objects of wonder; nor misehances a subject of Borrow and lamentation. TIley did all, they suffered aU! to the glory of God."-London Re~ view, No. ii. p.845. [H.] Pm't II. Olzap. II. §2. p. 193. tt First, as to p1'occimity of time, everyone knows; that any melancholy incident is the more affecting that it is 'recent. Hence it is become eommon wHh story-tellers, that they may make a deeper impression on the hearers, to introduce remarks like these: that the tale which they relate is not old, that it APPENDIX [H]. 447 happened but lately, or in their own time, or that they are yet living who had a part ill it, or were witnesses of it. Proximity of time regards not only the past, but tIle future. An event that will probably soon happen, hath greater influence upon us than what willlJl'obably happen a Ion g time hence. I have hitherto procecded on the hypothesis, that the orator rouses the passions of his hearers, by exhibiting some past transaction ; but we must acknowledge that passion may be as strongly excited by his rcasonings concel'l1ing an event yet to come. In the judiciary orations there is greater scope for the former, in the deliberative, for the latter j though in each kind there may occasionally be scope for both. All the seven circumstances enumerated are alJplieable, and have equal weight, whether they relate to the future 01' to the past, The only exception that I know of is, that probability and plau8i~ bility are scarcely distinguishable, whell used in l'eference to events in futurity. As in thesc thcre is no access for testi~ mony, what constitutes the princ~pal clistinction is quite excluded . In :compal'ing the influence of the past upon our minds with that of the future, it appeai's in general, that if the evidence, the importance, and t11e distance of the objects, be equal, the latter will be greater than the former, The reason, I imagine, i~, we are conscious, that as every moment, the future, which seems placed before us, is approaching; Rnd the past, which lies, as it werc, behind, is retiring; our nCRl'ncss 01' relation to the one constantly increaseth as the other decreaseth. There is something like attraction in the first case, and l'epnIsion in the second. This tends to interest Us morc in the future than in the past, and consequently to the present vieW aggrandizes the one, and diminishes the other. (( What, nevertheless, gives the past a veJlY considerable advantage, is its being generally !lusccptible of much stronger evidence than the fntttre. The lights of the mind are, if I may so express myself, in an opposite situation to the lights of the body, '1'he80 discover clearly the pli08peet lying btJiol'e us, but not the grollnd we have alrendy...