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APPENDIX. [A.] Pages 8, 156, 326. OMNINO hoc volumus, locos omnes, quorum fl'equens est usus (sive ad prohationes et l'efutationes, sive ad suasiones et dissuasiones, sive ad laudes et vituperia spectent) meditatos jam haberi, eosque ultimis ingenii viribus, ct tanquam improbe, et pl'orsus prmter veritatem, attolli et cleprlml . Modum autem hujus collectionis, tam ad usum, quam ad brevitatem, optimum fore censemus, si hujusmodi loci contrahantur in sententias quasdam acutas et condsas ; tanquam glomos quosdam, quorum fila in fusiorem discursum, cum res postulat, explicari possint. * * * Ejus generis, cum plurima parata habeamus, aliqua aci cxemplum proponere visum est. Ea autem ANTITHETA rerum nominamus. [It is worth observing that several of these commonplaces of Bacon have become PROVERBS; and others of them are well calculated to become so. And most of the Proverbs that are in use in various languages are of a similar character to these. Considering that Proverbs have been current in all ages and countries, it is a curious circumstance that so much difference of opinion should exist as to the utility, and as to the design of them. Some are accustomed to speak as if Proverbs contained a sort of concentrated essence of the wisdom of all Ages, which will enable anyone to judge and 394 APPENDIX [A]. act aright on evcryemergency. Others on the contrary represent them as fit only to furnish occasionally a motto for a book, a theme for a school-boy's exercise, 01' a copy for children learning to wl'ite. To me, both these opinions appeal' erroneous. That Proverbs are not generally regal'ded, by those who use them, as, necessarily, propositions of universal and acknowledged truth, like mathematical axioms, is plain from the circumstance that many of those most in use, are,like these common-places of Bacon,-opposed to each other ;. as e. g. "'l'ake care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of thcmselves;" to" Be not penny-wise and pound-foolish;" and again, "The more haste, the worse speed;" or, "Wait awhile, that we may make an end the sooner;" to" Take time by the forelock," or "Time and tide for no man bide," &C. 1t scems, I think, to be practically understood, that a Proverb is merely a compendious expression of some principle , which will usually be, in different cases, and with or without certain modifications, true or false, applicable or inapplicable. When then a Proverb is introduced, the speaker usually employs it as a Major-premise, and is understood to imply, as a Minor, that the principle thus referred to is applicable in the existing case. And what is gained by the employment of the Proverb, is, that his judgment, and his reason for it, are conveyed-through the use of a well-known form of expression, clearly, and at the same time in an incomparably shorter space, than if he had had to explain his meaning in expressions framed for the occasion. And the brevity thus obtained is often still further increased by suppressing the full statement even of the very Proverb itself, if a VC1'Y common one, and merely alluding to it in a word 01' two. Proverbs accordingly are somewhat analogous to those medical Formulas which, being in frequent use, are kept ready-made-up in the chemists' shops, and which often save the framing of a distinct Prescription. APPENDIX [A], 395 And the usefulness of this brevity will not be thought, by anyone well conversant with Reasoning, to consist merely in the saving of breath, paper, or time. Brevity, when it does not cause obscurity, conduees much to the opposite effect, and causes the meaning to be far more clearly apprehended than it would have been in a longer expression. More than half the cases probably, in whieh men either misapprehend what is said, or confuse one question with another, or are misled by any fallacy, are traceable in .great measure to a want of sufficient conciseness of expression.] NOBILITAS. * PRO. * Nobilitas laurea, qua tempus homines coronat. Antiquitatem etiam in monumentis mOl'tuis venel'amUl': quanta magis in vivis? * * * NobiIitas virtutem invidire snbducit, gratire tradit. CONTRA. Raro ex virtute nobilitas: rarius ex nobilitate virtus. Nobiles majOl'um deprecatione , ad vernam, srepius utuntul', quam sllffragatione, ad hono1'e8. Tanta solet esse industria hominum novorum, ut nobiles prre illis tanquam stature videantur. Nobiles in studio l'cspectant nimis srepe: quod mali cUl'so1'lil est. [(I Nobilitatem nemo contemnit , nisi cui abest: nemo jactitat, nisi cui nihil aliud cst quo...