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CHAP. II. § 1.] ENERGY. 275 CHAP, n.-ofEnergy.§l. THE next quality of Style to be noticed is what may be called Energy; the term being used in a wider sense than the 'Evkp'Y€ba of Aristotle, and nearly corresponding with what Dr. Campbell caUs Vivacity; so as to comprehend every thing that may conduce to stimulate attention,-to impress strongly on the mind the Arguments adduced,-to excite the Imagination, and to arouse the Feelings. This Energy then, or Vivacity of Style, must depend (as is likewise the ease in respect of Perspicuity) on three things: 1st, the Choice of words, 2nd, their Number, and 3rd~ their Arrangement. With respect to the Choice of words, it will be most convenient to consider them under those two classes 'which Aristotle has deChoice of WQ1'ds with a view to scribed under the titles of Kuria and Xena, enlJ1'flY' for which our language does not afford precisely corresponding names: "Propel'," "Appropriate," or "Ordinary ," terms, will the most nearly designate the former; the latter class (literally the "Strange,") including all others ;-all that are in any way removed from common use ;-whether uncommon terms, or ordinary terms transferred to a different meaning from that which strictly belongs to them, or employed in a different manner from that of common discourse. An the Tropes and li'igures, enumerated by Grammatical und Rhetorical Writers, will of course faU under this head. With respect then to " Proper" terms, the principal rule for guiding our choice with a view to Energy, is to prefer, ever, those words which are the least abstract andgenerat. InCaution against gene. t'at tel'ms, 276 STYLE. [PA1~'l' lIt. dividuala alone having a 1'cal existence*, the terms de~ noting them (called by Logicians "Singular tm'ms") will of course malte the most vivid impression on the mind, and exel'Cise most the power of Conception; and the less rcmote any term is from these, i. e. the mOl'C specific or individual , the more energy it will possess, in comparison of such as are more general. The impression produced on the mind by a " Singular term," may be compared to the distinct view taken in -by the eye of any object (suppose some particular man) neal' at hand, in a clear light, which enables us to distinguish the features of the individ'ual; in a fainter light, or rather further off, we merely perceive that t,he object is a man; this corresponds with the idea conveyed by the name of the Species; yet further off, or in a still feebler light, we can distinguish merely some livin.q object; and at length, merely some object; these views corresponding respectively with the terms denoting the genera, less or more remote. And as each of these views conveys, as far as it goes, an equally correct impression to the mind, (for we are equally certain that the object at a distance is sQmething, as that the one close to us is such and such an individual,) though each, successively, is less vivid; so, in language, a generic term may be as clearly understood, as a Specific,o1' a Singular tetro, but will con~ vey a much less forcible impression to the hearer's mind. " The more General the terms are," (as Dr. Campbelljustly *Thence called by Aristotle, (Categ. sec. 3.) " primary substal\Ces " ("'pwraL ovO'lal,) Genus uud Species, being denominated" secoudary," as not properly denoting a" really-existing-thing," (1'086 TI,) but rather alluttrlbute. He lIas, indeed, beell considered as the great advocate of the opposite doctrine; i. e. the system of" J,tealism; " which was certainly embraced by many of his professed followers; Imt his own language is sufficientlyexplicit, naO'u 86 oMia 80JCGt r686 Tt".w. 'Ell" J.l-Iw OVV TWV lI'ptflTwv ovO"twv tXv(1.p.AINETAI p.~v oJ.l-olws np uxf}/laTt 'rijs 'If'PoO'I17oplas '1'086 Tt ullpa/volv, 81'(1.'11 6111"1,1, liv9pW1TOS, 1) ~WO'll, 01' MHN rE AAHeB:l3' aAAd pii.AAOV '/roUv TO u1/pa/Vfi£' Ie. '1'. A.-Aristotle, Categ. § 3. See Logic, Dissert. c. v. CRAP, II. § 1.] ENERGY, 27'1 remarks,) "the picture is the fainter; the more Special they are, the brighter. rrIle same sentiment may be expressed with equal justness, and even equal perspicuity, in the former way, as in the latter; but as the colouring will in that case be more languid...


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