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CHAI'. III. § 1.] DISPOSITION TOWARDS THE SPEAKER. 203 minds, especially of the ignorant and unthinking, and raise such a tumult of feeling, as will effectually blind thcirjudgment ; so that a string of vague abuse or panegyric will often have the effect of a train of sound Argument. 'l'his artifice falls under the head of " Irrelevant Conclusion," or ignoratio elenchi, mentioned in the Treatise on .Fallacies. CHAP. In.-Oj thejavouralJle or unfavourable disposition oj the !tearers towards tlte Speaker or Itis opponent.§l. In raIsmg a favourable impression of the speaker, or an unfavoUl'able one of his opponent , a peculiar tact will of course be nceesIndi1 'ect self-commendation . sary; especially in the former, since direct self-commendation will usually be disgusting to it greater degree even, than a direct personal attack on another: though, if the Orator is pleading his own cause, or one in which he is personally concerned, (as was the case in the "peech ofDemosthenes concerning the" Crown,") a greater allowance will be made for him on this point; especially if he be a very eminent person, and one who may safely appeal to public actions performed by him. 'rhus Pericles is rcpresented by Thucydides as claiming, directly, when speaking in his own vindication, exactly the qualities (good Sense, good Principle, and Good-will) which Aristotle lays down as constituting the character which we must seek to appeal' in. But then it is to be observed, that the historian represents him as accustomed to address the People with more authority than others for the most part ventured to assume. It is by the expression of wise, amiable, and generous Sentiments, that Aristotle recommends the speaker to manifest his own character*; but even this * When (as of coursc will often hapIJCn) the lWltrcrs arc thus indnced, 011 204 PERSUASION. [PAl.>'!' II. must generally be done in an Qhlique* and seemingly incidental mannel', lest the hearers be disgusted with apompous and studied display of fine sentiments; and care must also be taken not to afft'ont them by seeming to inculcate, as something likely to be new to them, maxims which they regard as almost tl'uisms. Of course the application of this last caution must vary according to the character of the persons addressed; that might excite admiration and gratitude in one audience, which another would receive with indignation and ridicule. Most men: however, are disposed rathel' to overrate than to extenuate their own moral judgment; or at least to he jealous of anyone's appearing to undel'rate it. Universally indeed, in the Arguments used, Eloquence II' h I ' relative. as we as m t e appea s made to the Feelings, a consideration mnst he had of the hearers, whether they are learned or ignorant,-of this 01' that profession ,-nation,-character, &c., and the address must be adapted to each; so that there can be no excellence of writing 01' speaking, in the abstract; nor can we any morc pronounce on the Eloquence of any Composition, than upon the wholesomeness of a medicine, without knowing for whom it is intended t. The less enlightened the hearinsufficient grounds, to give the speaker full credit for moral excellence, from his merely uttering the language les, all appearance of exultation in his own superiority,-of contcmpt,-or of uncharitable triumph in the detection of faults; "in meekness, instructing them that oppose themselves ." *A€,OV6I1repovs, not "too superstitions," but (as almost all commentators arc now agreed) "vcry much {lisposed to the worship of Divine Beings. 210 PERSUASION. [PAltTII. Of all hostile feelings, Envy is perhaps the hardest to be subdued; because hardly anyone owns it, even to himself ; but looks out for one pretext after another to justify the hostility which in reality springs from envy. A tone of deference for tlte audience, when diffi· cult to be assumed. One considerable difficulty there is, which is peculiar to him who has been accustomed to an audience of which he is the recognized insiruct01', when he comes to address those who are,orwho account themselves, his equals 01' superiors. Such is the case with a Professor , College-tutor, 01' Clergyman, when he has to speak in Parliament.. or before a Judge. He will have been accustomed, without any offensive arrogance or conceit, to speak in a tone of superiority, which, though perfectly suitable in the one case, would in the other bc intolerable. And he will find himself called on to assume, with much difficulty'. a tone...