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PAR'r II. OF pgRSUASION. CHAP, L-Int1·oductory.§l. PERSUASION, properly so called, i. e. the Analysis of art of influencing the Will, is the next point Persuasion. to be considered. And Rhetoric is often regarded (as was formerly remarked) in a more limited sense, as conversant about this head alone. But even, according to that view, the rules above laid down will be found not the less relevant; since the Conviction ofthe understanding (of whieh I have hithel'to been treating) is an essential part of Persuasion; and will generally neeti to be effected by the Arguments of the Writer or Speaker. For in order that the Will may be influenced, two things are requisite ; viz. 1. that the proposed Object should appear desirable; and 2. that the Means suggested should be proved to be conducive to the attainment of that object; and this last, evidently must depend on a process of Reasoning. In ol'del', e. g. to induce the Greeks to unite their efforts against the Persian invader, it was necessary both to prove that co-operation could alone render their resistance effectual , and also to awaken such feelings of patriotism and abhorrence of a foreign yoke, as might prompt them to make these combined efforts. For it is evident, that however ardent their love of Uberty, they would make no ex- 176 PERSUASION. [PA.llT II, ertions if they apprehended no danger; 01' if they thought themselves able, separately, to defend themselves, they would be backward to join the confederacy: and on the other hand, that if they were willing to submit to the Persian yoke, or valued their independence less than their present ease, the fullest conviction that the Means recommended would secure their independence, would have had no practical effect, Eailw1'Uttion. Persuasion, therefore, depends on, first, A1'- !lument, (to prove the expediency ofthe Means proposed,) and secondly, what is usually called ExlUYl'tation , i. e, the excitement of men to adopt those Means, by representing the End as sufficiently desirable. Itwill happen , indeed, not unfrequently, that the one or the other of these objects will have been already,either wholly 01' in part, accomplished; so that the other shall be the only one that it is requisite to insist on; viz. sometimes the hearers will be sufficiently intent on the pursuit of the End, and will be in doubt only as to the Means of attaining it; and sometimes, again, they will have no doubt on that point, but will be indifferent , 01' not sufficiently ardent, with l'espect to the proposed End, and :will need to be stimulated by Exhortations. Not sufficiently ardent, I have said, because it will not so ~ften happen that the object in question will be one to which they are totally indiffercnt, as that they will, practically at least, not reckon it, or not feel it, to be worth the requisite pains. Noone is absolutely indifferent about the attainment of a happy immortality; and yet a great part of the Preacher's business eonsists in Exhortation, i. e. endeavouring to induce men to use those exertions which they themselves believe to be necessary for the attainment of it. Aristotle, and many other writers, have Passions. spoken of appeals to the Passions as an unfair mode of influencing the hearers; in answer to which Dr. Campbell has remarked, that there can be no Persuasion CUAP. I. § 1.J ANALYSIS OF PERSUASION. 177 without an address to the Passions*: and it is evident, from what has been just said, that he is right, if under the term Passion be included every active Principle of our nature. This however is a greater latitude of meaning than belongs even to the Greek word I1&e'l); though the signification of that is wider than, according to ordinary use, that of our term" Passions." But Aristotle by no means overlooked the Influence of necessity with a view to Persuasion, properly tl.e Wilt. so termed, of calling into action some motive that may influence the vVill; it is plain that whenever he speaks with reprobation of an appeal to the Passions, his meaning is, the excitement of such feelings as ougltt not to influence the decision of the question in hand. A desire to do justice, may be called, in Dr. Campbell's wide accepta- *"To say, that it is possible to persuade without speaking to the passions is but at best a kind of specious nonsense. The coolest reasoner always in persuading...