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CHAP. II. § 1.] ARGUMENTS. 39 other words, how is it accounted for? and thirdly, What Consequence results from it? The last two of these questionsJ though they will not in every case suggest such answers as at'e strictly to be called the Cause and the Consequenee of the principal truth to be maintained, may, at leastJ oftcn furnish such propositions as bear a somewhat similar relation to it. lt is to be obsel'ved, that in }'ecommending the writer to begin by laying down in his own mind the propositions to he maintained, it is not meant to be implied that they are always to be stated first; that will depend upon the nature of the case; and rules ,vill hereafter be given on that point. It is to be observed also, that by the words "Proposition " or "Assel'tion/' throughout this Treatise, is to be understood some conclusion to he establishedJor itself; not, with a view to an ulterior conclusion: those propositions which are intended to serve as p1'emises, being called, in allowable conformity with popular usage, A1'/Juments; it being customary to argue in the enthymematic form, and to call, for brevity's sake, the expressed premiss of an enthymeme , the argument by which the conclusion of it is proved*. CHAP. n.-oJ Arguments.§I. THE finding of suitable ARGUMEN'l'S to prove a given point, and the skilful arrangement of them, may be considered as the immediate and. propel' province ofIthetol'ic, andofthat alone .,'. Pl'operpl'Ovince of Jthetoric. * Logic, book i. § 2. t Aristotle's divisiQIl of PCl'suasives into "artificial" and "inal'tificial," (iiV1'6XVQ! aml o.1'6X"0!) including under the latter llead, "Witnesses, Laws, 40 CONVICTION. [PART J. The business of Logic is, as Cicero complains, to fudge of arguments, not to invent them: (" in inveniendis al'gumentis muta nimium est; in judicandis, nimium loquax) *." 'rhe knowledge, again, in each case, of the subject in hand, is essential; but it is evidently borrowed from the science 01' system conversant about that subject-matter, whether Politics, Theology, IJaw, Ethics, or any other. The art of addressing the feelings, again, does not belong exclusively to Rhetoric; since Poetry has at least as much to do with that branch. Nor are the considerations relative to Style and Elocution confined to argumentative and persuasive compositions. The art of inventing and arranging Argument8 is, as has been said, the only province that Rhetoric can claim entirely and exclusively. Arguments are divided according to several different principles; i. e. logically speaking, there are 8eveml divisions of them. And these Various divisions of Arguments. cross-divisions have proved a source of endless perplexity to the Logical and Rhetorical student, because there is perhaps no writer on either subject that has been aware of their character. Hardly any thing perhaps has contributed so much to lessen the interest and the utility ofsystems ofRhetoric, as the indistinctness henee resulting. When in any subject the members of a division are not opposed, [contradistinguished,] but are in fact lllCmbera of dlflerent divisions, crossing each other, it is manifestly iIIl.possible to obtain any clear notion of the Species treated of; nor will any labour or ingenuity bestowed on the subject be of the least avail, till the original source of perplexity is Contracts," &e., ill strangely unphilosophical. The one class, he says, the Orator is to make use of; the other, to devise. But it is evident that, ill all cases alike, the (lata we argue/rom must be something already existing, and which we are not to make, but to use; and that the arguments derived from these data Ilre the work of Art. Whether these data are geneI'd maxims or particular testimony-Laws of NatUl'e, or Laws of the Laud-makes, in this respect, 110 difference. * Cil:. de Orat. CHAI.'. II. § 1.] ARGUMENTS. 41 removed i-till, in short, the croBs-divisiQn is detected and explained. Arguments then may be divided. Fil'st, into Irregular, and Regulm', 't. e. Syllogisms; these last into Categorical and Hypothetical; and the Categorical, into Syllogisms in the first Figure, and in the other Figures, &c. &0. Secondly, 'l'hey ore frequently divided into" Probable," [or" Moral/'] and" Demonstrative," [01' 'i Necessary."] Thirdly, into the "Direct," and the " Indirect;" [01' l'eductio ad absU1'dum,] -the Deictic, and the Elenctic, of Aristotle. Fourthly, into Arguments from" Example," from" Testimony /' from" Cause to Effect," from" Analogy," &c. &c. It will be perceived, on attentive examination, thatseveral of...