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225 Notes 1. beginnings 1. See Bennett and Mandelbrote, Garden, the Ark, the Tower, the Temple, 16–20. 2. See Prest, Garden of Eden. 3. Scheuchzer’s work is discussed in Rudwick, Scenes from Deep Time, 4–17. The quotation from Scheuchzer is cited on 8. 4. Quoted in Nicolson, Power and Glory, 104. 5. See Grove, Green Imperialism; Withers, “Geography, Enlightenment, and the Paradise Question,” 67–92. 6. See Haber, Age of the World; Dean, “Age of the Earth Controversy,” 435–56; and Rossi, Dark Abyss of Time. 7. Barr, “Luther and Biblical Chronology,” 51–67. 8. Patrides, “Renaissance Estimates,” 315–22. See also Patrides, Premises and Motifs. 9. See Barr, “Why the World Was Created in 4004 BC,” 575–608; Leeman, “Was Bishop Ussher’s Chronology Influenced by a Midrash?” 127–30; Gould, “Fall in the House of Ussher,” 181–93; Brice, “Bishop Ussher, John Lightfoot and the Age of Creation,” 18–24; Gorst, Measuring Eternity, chap. 2. 10. Woodward, “Medieval Mappaemundi,” 286–370. 11. See Mass, “Preadamites,” 12:370–71; Popkin, Isaac La Peyrére, 27–28. 12. Harnack, “Origen,” s.v. 13. Gregory of Nyssa, “On the Making of Man,” 394. Given these convictions, it is not surprising that in later centuries Christian evolutionists—Catholics in particular —would look back to Gregory of Nyssa to find legitimacy within the Christian tradition for their evolutionary proposals. See Messenger, Evolution and Theology; Dorlodot, Darwinism and Catholic Thought. 14. Popkin, “Development of Religious Scepticism,” 271–80; and “Pre-Adamite Theory in the Renaissance,” 50–69. 15. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 516. 16. The discovery of human prehistory and deep geological time is charted in Rudwick, Bursting the Limits of Time. 226 Notes to Pages 9–17 17. Barr, “Pre-Scientific Chronology,” 379–87. 18. Augustine, City of God, bk. 12, chap. 10; bk. 18, chap. 40. See the brief discussion in Popkin, Isaac La Peyrére, 27–28. 19. For this, of course, he was later censured by Andrew Dickson White in History of the Warfare. 20. On Scaliger, see Grafton’s two-volume Joseph Scaliger. See also Grafton, Defenders of the Text, chap. 4: “Scaliger’s Chronology: Philology, Astronomy, World History”; and “Dating History,” 74–85. Problems arising from Chinese chronology are discussed in Van Kley, “Europe’s ‘Discovery’ of China,” 358–85; and Mungello, Great Encounter. 21. See Tavakoli-Targhi, “Contested Memories,” 149–75. 22. See the discussion in Tavakoli-Targhi, “Orientalism’s Genesis Amnesia,” 1–14. 23. Eco, Serendipities, 64. 24. Montaigne, “An Apologie of Raymond Sebond,” Montaigne’s Essays, vol. 2, bk. 2, chap. 12, 288. 25. Charron, Of Wisdom; Lanquet, Epitome of Chronicles. 26. Rossi, Dark Abyss of Time. 27. Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism, 17. 28. See Siraisi, “Vesalius and Human Diversity,” 60–88. 29. See Wittkower, “Marvels of the East,” Journal 159–97. 30. An extensive listing is provided in Woodward, “Medieval Mappaemundi,” 331; and in Friedman, Monstrous Races, 5–25. 31. Campbell, Witness and the Other World, 8, 55. 32. See the wide-ranging inquiry into this subject by Daston and Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature. 33. Ibid., 25. 34. Mason, Deconstructing America, 75. Mason notes that depictions of monstrous races in the ancient world followed the same principle. In both Pliny and Herodotus “the monstrous human races are a part of a system of roughly concentric circles with their centre in the region of Italy or Greece” (79). 35. Woodward, “Medieval Mappaemundi,” 332. 36. Jeffrey, “Medieval Monsters,” 62. 37. Campbell, Witness and the Other World, 55. 38. See the discussion in Friedman, Monstrous Races, 178. 39. The following explanations are detailed in ibid. 40. Augustine, City of God, bk. 16, chap. 8. 41. Friedman, Monstrous Races, 88. 42. Campbell, Witness and the Other World, 10. 43. See Mason, Deconstructing America, 97–99. 44. See Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions. 45. Campbell, Witness and the Other World, 180; Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions , 75. 46. Raleigh, Discovery, 85. Notes to Pages 17–27 227 47. Lafitau, Moeurs des Sauvages Amériquains. 48. On this subject the work of J. Brian Harley is recommended. See Harley, Maps and the Columbian Encounter; “Rereading the Maps of the Columbian Encounter ,” 522–42; and “Maps and the Invention of America,” 8–12. 49. Lestringant, Mapping the Renaissance World, 64. 50. The quotations from Bodin and de Bry are to be found in Grafton, New Worlds, 130, 152. 51. Ryan, “Assimilating New Worlds,” 519–38. 52. Grafton, New Worlds, 207. 53. Quoted in Huxley, “Aristotle, Las Casas...