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Glossary abwab illegal additional assessment on land adalat law court amils caste of collectors amlah ministerial officer supervising courts anna one sixteenth of a rupee awt plough ayah domestic servant or nursemaid Ayurveda Hindu system of medicine babu Indian clerk who could write English bajri small Indian corn or millet bania (banja) Hindu grain trader banyan money changer, trader, shopkeeper begah small quantity begum lady nawab bheel hired tribal labourer bheestie water carrier bigha measure of land area, about 1 ⁄4 hectare Brahmin member of the Hindu priestly order budgerow keelless cabin boat bunniah money lender bustee temporary village of mat huts or shanty town canongo village accountant in the pay of landlords Chumar member of a low-caste, ‘‘untouchable’’ crinjal rice variety crore ten million cutcherry court house dacoits armed robber gang dai midwife dalit formerly ‘‘untouchable’’ deshmukh district hereditary officer dhal (dal) lentil or split pea dish diwan financial minister/revenue collector doab tract of land between two converging rivers durbar imperial assembly of Indian princes with British viceroy / 921 fakir religious mendicant ferosh ameen judicial officer or inspector ghat steps leading to water ghee clarified butter gomastah agent, broker gowandya partner guzur trader or dealer from Gujarat hakim judge; Unani physician in the Greek-Islamic tradition handis earthenware vessels huks lawful claims ijaradar zemindar’s agent inam hereditary rent-free landholding Jainism ancient ascetic religion jamadar Arab officer jheels reaches of old river channel beds jhilmil wooden blind jowari Indian corn jumma amount of rent or revenue payable kabuliyat contract document between zemindar and ryots (see patta) kachahri money lender’s desk kayasth literate person, scribe khalkoowa rudimentary well or cesspit under the house khamar private land of a proprietor kholkhasi peasant living close to a village khorkasht resident ryot khudkasht settled kulkarni village accountant kunbis caste of cultivators lakh 100,000 units (usually rupees) lal bazaar brothel lingayat caste of ‘‘bearers of lingam’’ (stylized phallus) lok people lok sabha house of the people; lower house of India’s Parliament lumberdar village headman in North India maal adalat revenue court mahajan money lender, banker mahal residence, palace maharaja great king, ruler mahout driver of an elephant maidan park surrounding Fort William Calcutta commons maktab school mamlatdar native district magistrate Mang member of a low caste Maratha resident of Maharashtra (western Deccan), warrior meerassider bona fide landlord 922 / Florence Nightingale on Social Change in India Marwari inhabitant of Marwar; merchant banker from the vicinity of Rajasthan mehter sweeper memsahib lady, mistress Mhar member of a low caste mhatoot see abwab mofussil rural hinterland mooktar agent, attorney munsif magistrate nabob British corruption of nawab, used for Englishmen who gained sudden riches in India nawab deputy or viceroy of the Mughal emperors; Muslim prince nazir finance enforcer, inspector nirikh rates of assessment nirkbundy standard rate nizam former ruler of Hyderabad nullah ravine, bed of a stream paikasht non-resident ryot panchayat council of five; traditional ruling council of a Hindu village pandit sanskrit scholar or Hindu teacher Parbhus caste of writers and clerks Parsi member of the Zoroastrian community in western India patel village headman in western India and the Deccan pathsala school patta contract documents between zemindar and ryots (see kabuliyat) patwari village accountant in the pay of government pendall native barrack peon inferior officer of the court, footman pergunna customary rate pergunnah a fiscal district usually comprising many villages pie 4 pie = 1 anna pindari former soldier, turned brigand and freebooter pottah deed of lease puja (act of) worship punkah portable or fixed fan purdah female seclusion raiyat peasant with a certain control of the land use (from Arabic; see ryot) raiyatwari land revenue system based on individual peasant proprietors raj kingdom raja king, ruler rajput Hindu warrior caste of north India, esp. in Rajasthan ranee wife of a raja ryot peasant with a certain control of the land use (from Hindi; see raiyat) ryotwari system of land administration (common in western and southern India) whereby tax was directly levied on the fields of each Glossary / 923 individual landholder (ryot) by a government servant residing in the village, without a native landlord serving as middle man (as in the zemindari system) sabha council, house, association sahib master, sir or lord sarbarakar manager sayer sources of revenue besides land tax sepoy Indian soldier in a European army Shia important division of the Muslim faith, going back to Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad Sikh member of an Indian syncretic religion (Hinduism + Islam) founded in the 15th century...


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