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300 The Land Answers 25. See Patterson et al., Nevada’sNortheastFrontier. 26. Guinn, History of the State of California. 27. Graves, CaliforniaMemories. 28. Reno Evening Gazette, April 4, 1901. Sparks already owned ten thousand acres in Texas; his will does not mention the additional twelve thousand acres. 29. In 1903, Elko County tax assessment rolls listed Sparks-Harrell as the third-largest taxpayer in Elko County with an assessed value of $242,425; Wells State Herald, September 18, 1903. 30. Harper’s Weekly, “Nevada.” 31. Little is known about John Sparks’s Wnancial status in Nevada when he died except the general knowledge that he was bankrupt. His estate in Texas listed assets of $47,015 and debts of $57,784 in Probate No. 1554, Williamson County, Texas, September 28, 1908. 32. Guinn, History of the State of California. 33. For information on late-nineteenth-century scientists who were active indescribingtheforageresourcesofthesagebrush/grasslands,seeF.G.Renner, A Selected Bibliography on Management of Western Ranges, Livestock, and Wildlife, usda Misc. Publ. 281 (Washington, D.C.: gpo, 1938). 34. Wells State Herald, August 15, 1905. 35. Nelson, The Red Desert of Wyoming. 36.JohnSparkspurchasedtheWedekindminefor$175,000incash(anewspaper editor saw the money). Residents of Reno thought Wedekind was crazy because he kept prospecting in the ridge north of the city; see RenoEveningGazette ,May31,1902.ItisremarkablethatJohnSparks,whohadinvestedinmining ventures in Wyoming in the 1870s and in Nevada for twenty-Wve years, was victimized in the Wedekind mine fraud. Apparently, the surface deposits were richoxidesofsilverandthemillwasbuilttotreatsuchores;butatdepth,theores becamesulfatesthatthemillcouldnottreat.Theminealsoencounteredagreat deal of hot water. The area is a valid mineral prospect and Sparks probably suVeredfrombadluckandpoorbusinessjudgment.SeeH.F.Bonham,Geology and Mineral Deposits of Washoe and Storey Counties, Nevada, Mackay School of Mines Bull. 70 (Reno: University of Nevada, 1969). After his death, Sparks’s ranch in Texas became the site of the Texaco oil Welds. 37. Clay, My Life on the Range. 38. Water and Related Land Resources. 300 Notes Passing of the Old Guard 301 epilogue 1.Duringthe2000Wreseason,pilotsofaircraftusedinWresuppressionwere lost. 2. J. A. Young, A. Evans, R. E. Eckert Jr., and B. L. Kay, “Cheatgrass,” Rangelands 2 (1987): 266–71. 3.J.A.YoungandD.McKenzie,“RangelandDrill,”Rangelands4(1982):108– 13. Notes 301 302 The Land Answers Passing of the Old Guard 303 equivalency name table plants Abieslasiocarpa—subalpineWr Agoseris glauca—pale agoseris Agropyronsmithii—westernwheatgrass Agropyron spicatum—bluebunch wheatgrass Agrostis alba—redtop Artemisiaarbuscula—lowsagebrush Artemisiacana—silversagebrush Artemisianova—black sagebrush Artemisiaspinescens—budsage Artemisia tridentata ssp.tridentata—basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana—mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis—Wyoming big sagebrush Atriplex—saltbush Atriplex canescens—fourwing saltbush Atriplex confertifolia—shadescale Balsamorhizasagittata—arrowleaf balsam root Bromus tectorum—cheatgrass, downy brome Carex sp.—tuV sod of sedges Castilleja sp.—Indian paintbrush Ceratoides lanata—winterfat Cercocarpus ledifolius—curlleaf mountain mahogany Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus—low rabbitbrush Collinsiasp.—Chinesehouse Cowaniamexicanassp.stansburiana—cliVrose Dactylis glomerata—orchard grass Delphinium sp.—low larkspur Delphinium barbeyi—tall larkspur Delphinium glaucum—tall larkspur Elocharisaricularis—spikerush 304 The Land Answers Elymus cinereus—Great Basin wildrye Elymus triticoides—diminutive creeping wildrye Ephedraviridis—greenephedra Festucaidahoensis—Idaho fescue Gossypium sp.—cotton Hordeum brachyantherum—meadow barley Hordeum vulgare—barley Iris missouriensis—Rocky Mountain iris Juncusbalticus—wiregrass Juniperus osteosperma—Utah juniper Medicagosativa—alfalfa Mimulusnanus—skunk monkey Xower Muhlenbergia brachyantherum—mat muhly Orzyopsis hymenoides—Indian ricegrass Phleum pratense—timothy Pinus albicaulis—white bark pine Pinus contorta—lodgepole pine Pinus flexilis—limber pine Pinus longalva—ancient bristlecone Pinus monophylla—single-leaf pinyon Poanevadensis—Nevadabluegrass Poasandbergii—Sandbergbluegrass Populus fremontii—Fremont cottonwood Populus nigar var. italica—Lombardy poplar Populus tremuloides—quaking aspen Populus trichocarpa—black cottonwood Prunusandersonii—desert peach Purshiatridentata—bitterbrush Ribes velutinum—ribes Salix sp.—willow Sarcobatusvermiculatus—greasewood Scirpus robustus—alkali bullrush 304 Equivalency Name Table Passing of the Old Guard 305 Sitanion hystrix—squirreltail Stipa comata—needle and thread grass Stipathurberiana—Thurberneedlegrass Symphoricarpossp.—snowberry Tetradymiacanescens—horsebrush Typha latifolia—cattail tule Vulpiaoctoflora—six-weeksfescue Wyethia mollis—mule ears Zigadenus venenosus—death camas animals Antilocapraamericana—pronghorn Bison bison—American bison Bos—cow Camelops—camel Castorcanadensis—beaver Centrocerus urophasianus—sage grouse Cervus canadensis—elk, wapiti Equuscaballus—horse Gymnorhinus cyanocephala—pinyon jays Lepus californicus—black-tailed jackrabbit Lepus townsendii—white-tailed jackrabbit Mastodon sp.—mastodon Odocoileus hemionus—mule deer Ovisaries—sheep Oviscanadensis—desertbighorn Pogonomyrmex sp.—harvester ants bacteria Bacillus tularense—tularemia Equivalency Name Table 305 306 The Land Answers Passing of the Old Guard 307 index Abilene, Kans., 74 Adams, Gov. Jewett W., 105 airmentractordivers,10 air tankers, 8 AlamoHerefords,209 Alamo Stock Farm, 201 alfalfa: and Cameron, W. E., 163; and Petigrew, J. P., 163 Alice Woods Palace, 242...


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