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Out of the Void 163 35. J. Cohen, “Theories Vary on the Rise of Black Youth Gangs,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1972, B1–3. 36. Jah and Shah’Keyah, Uprising: Crips and Bloods Tell the Story, 121. 37. S. Brown, Fighting for US, 78. 38. U.S. Congress, “Subversive Influences in Riots, Looting, and Burning, pt. 3.” 39. Federal Bureau of Investigations, partially redacted memo # LA 157-3436, investigative period May 6, 1969–June 21, 1970, June 26, 1970. 40. U.S. Congress, “Subversive Influences in Riots, Looting, and Burning, pt. 3.” 41. In the 1950s, the FBI created a covert program to investigate “dissident” and “subversive” political organizations known as Counter Intelligence Program or more commonly referred to by its acronym cointelpro. Directives issued by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover used false claims and illegal surveillance to prevent groups from exercising their First Amendment rights (Blackstock, COINTELPRO: The FBI’s Secret War). 42. U.S. Senate, “Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities .” 43. Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965, at the age of thirty-nine in Harlem, New York City. 44. U.S. Senate, “Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities .” 45. S. Brown, Fighting for US. 46. U.S. Senate, “Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities .” 47. Schiesl, “Behind the Badge,” 168. 48. The arrests of BPP members in 1969 was determined by the print media reports of the Los Angeles Times and Los Angeles Sentinel newspapers that reported on their arrests and outcomes. This analysis identified 101 arrests on charges ranging from disorderly conduct to murder. There were six convictions, three acquittals, and ninety-two arrests that resulted in dismissals or charges dropped. 49. D. Torgerson, “Police Seize Panther Fortress in Gunfights,” Los Angeles Times, December 9, 1969, A1. 50. William J. Drummond and Kenneth Reich, “Two Black Panthers Slain in UCLA Hall,” Los Angeles Times, January 18, 1969, A1, 17. 51. This tragic event would pave the way for what eventually became the Ralph J. Bunche Center for African American Studies at UCLA. 52. U.S. Senate, “Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities .” 53. M. Davis, City of Quartz, 298; Churchill and Vander Wall, Agents of Repression , 42; Tyler, Black Radicalism in Southern California, 16. 164 Alex Alonso 54. Ngozi-Brown, “The US Organization.” 55. Swearingen, FBI Secrets: An Agent Exposé, 82. 56. Churchill and Vander Wall, Agents of Repression, 42. 57. S. Brown, Fighting for US, 97. 58. In chap. 16, Ramón and Hunt interview Daniel Johnson, who was also a member of a community-based collaborative committed to providing more access for black students to UCLA in the first decade of the 2000s. 59. Bob Pool, “Witness to 1969 UCLA Shootings Speaks at Rally,” Los Angeles Times, January 18, 2008, B1–7. 60. Joe Bingham, “Black Congress Chairman Quits,” Los Angeles Sentinel, January 30, 1969, A1, 10. 61. Jim Cleaver, “L.A.P.D. Raids US Headquarters; Arrest Two,” Los Angeles Sentinel, January 15, 1970, A1, D2. 62. Federal Bureau of Investigations partially redacted declassified memo # LA 157-3436, investigative period May 6, 1969–June 21, 1970, and June 26, 1970. 63. Cannon, Official Negligence, 197. 64. Robinson, Black Movements in America, 152. 65. D. Baker, Crips: The Story of the L.A. Street Gang, 28. 66. “Raymond Washington the Founder of the Crips,” Allhood Magazine, vol. 3, no. 5, April 2008. 67. Greg “Batman” Davis, interview, Lords of the Mafia (directed by Dan Goldman, USA: Ampersand Media, Public Broadcasting Service [PBS], 2000). 68. Alonso, “Territoriality Among African American Street Gangs,” 80. 69. S. Williams, Blue Rage, Black Redemption, 83. 70. Jah and Shah’Keyah, Uprising: Crips and Bloods Tell the Story, 203. 71. S. Williams, Blue Rage, Black Redemption, 108, 112. 72. Alex Alonso, “Blood Pressure Rising,” Source Magazine, vol. 205, December 2006, 82–87. 73. Michael Krikorian, “Tookie’s Mistaken Identity: On the Trail of the Real Founder of the Crips,” LA Weekly, December 15, 2005, 16. 74. Some of the other original Westside Crips include Donald “Sweet Back” Archie, Melvin Hardy, Anthony Hatchett, Thomas “T-Bone” Ligon, and Curtis “Buddha” Morrow. 75. M. Davis, City of Quartz, 300. 76. “History of the Harlems,” Allhood Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, July 2007. 77. S. Williams, Blue Rage, Black Redemption, 81. 78. Greg “Batman” Davis, interview, Lords of the Mafia. 79. J. Cohen, “Theories Vary on the Rise of Black Youth Gangs,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1972, C1–3. 80. “Gang of 20 Beats Youth...

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