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269 technology in the latter half of the 19th Century the commercial exploitation of the anadromous fish resources by non-Indians increased tremendously. Indians, fishing under their treaty-secured rights, also participated in this expanded commercial fishery and sold many fish to non-Indian packers and dealers. 14. The taking of anadromous fish from usual and accustomed places, the right to which was secured to the Treaty Tribes in the Stevens’ treaties, constituted both the means of economic livelihood and the foundation of native culture. Reservation of the right to gather food in this fashion protected the Indians’ right to maintain essential elements of their way of life, as a complement to the life defined by the permanent homes, allotted farm lands, compulsory education, technical assistance and pecuniary rewards offered in the treaties. Settlement of the West and the rise of industrial America have significantly circumscribed the opportunities of members of the Treaty Tribes to fish for subsistence and commerce and to maintain tribal traditions. But the mere passage of time has not eroded, and cannot erode, the rights guaranteed by solemn treaties that both sides pledged on their honor to uphold. 15. The treaty-secured rights to resort to the usual and accustomed places to fish were a part of larger rights possessed by the treating Indians, upon the exercise of which there was not a shadow of impediment, and which were not much less necessary to their existence than the atmosphere they breathed. The treaty was not a grant of rights to the treating Indians, but a grant of rights from them, and a reservation of those not granted. In the Stevens’ treaties, such reservations were not of particular parcels of land, and could not be expressed in deeds, as dealings between private individuals. The reservations were in large areas of territory, and the negotiations were with the tribes. The treaties reserved rights, however, to every individual Indian, as though described therein. There was an exclusive right of fishing reserved within certain boundaries. There was a right outside of those boundaries reserved for exercise “in common with citizens of the Territory”. . . . [384 Federal Supplement, 343, 406–7.] 170. Indian Financing Act April 12, 1974 In order to encourage Indian economic development and self-sufficiency, Congress provided special credit sources, loan guarantees, and business grants to Indian groups and individuals. The law is in line with other self-determination legislation. An Act to provide for financing the economic development of Indians and Indian organizations, and for other purposes. . . . . declaration of policy Sec. 2. It is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to provide capital on a reimbursable basis to help develop and utilize Indian resources, both physical and human, to a point where the Indians will fully exercise responsibility for the utilization and management of their own resources and where they will enjoy a standard of living from their own productive efforts comparable to that enjoyed by non-Indians in neighboring communities . . . . TITLE I—INDIAN REVOLVING LOAN FUND Sec. 101. In order to provide credit that is not available from private money markets, all funds that are now or hereafter a part of the revolving fund authorized by the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 986), the Act of June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1968), and the Act of April 19, 1950 (64 Stat. 44), as amended and supplemented, including sums received in settlement of debts of livestock pursuant to the Act of May 4, 1950 (64 Stat. 190), and sums collected in repayment of loans heretofore or hereafter made, and as interest or other charges on loans, shall hereafter be administered as a single Indian Revolving Loan Fund. The fund shall be available for loans to 270 Indians having a form of organization that is satisfactory to the Secretary [of the Interior] and for loans to individual Indians who are not members of or eligible for membership in an organization which is making loans to its members: Provided, That, where the Secretary determines a rejection of a loan application from a member of an organization making loans to its membership from moneys borrowed from the fund is unwarranted, he may, in his discretion, make a direct loan to such individual from the fund. The fund shall also be available for administrative expenses incurred in connection therewith. Sec. 102. Loans may be made for any purpose which will promote the economic development of (a) the individual Indian borrower, including loans for educational purposes...


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