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222 according to at least a minimum standard of health and decency. Less than that means not only that they themselves will go through a long drawn out and painful process of vanishing . They must be aided for the preservation of themselves. Whichever way the individual Indian may elect to face, work in his behalf must be designed not to do for him but to help him to do for himself. The whole problem must be regarded as fundamentally educational. However much the early policy of rationing may have been necessary as a defensive, preventive war measure on the part of the whites, it worked untold harm to the Indians because it was pauperizing and lacked any appreciable educational value. Anything else done for them in a way that neglects educating them to do for themselves will work in the same direction. Controlling the expenditure of individual Indian money, for example, is pauperizing unless the work is so done that the Indian is being educated to control his own. In every activity of the Indian Service the primary question should be, how is the Indian to be trained so that he will do this for himself. Unless this question can be clearly and definitely answered by an affirmative showing of distinct educational purpose and method the chances are that the activity is impeding rather than helping the advancement of the Indian. . . . [Lewis Meriam et al., The Problem of Indian Administration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1928), pp. 21–22, 86–89.] 140. Johnson-O’Malley Act April 16, 1934 Congress in 1934 authorized contracts with states whereby the federal government would pay for educational, medical, and other services provided Indians by the states. An Act Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to arrange with States or Territories for the education, medical attention, relief of distress, and social welfare of Indians, and for other purposes. Be it enacted . . . , That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized, in his discretion , to enter into a contract or contracts with any State or Territory having legal authority so to do, for the education, medical attention, agricultural assistance, and social welfare, including relief of distress, of Indians in such State or Territory, through the qualified agencies of such State or Territory, and to expend under such contract or contracts moneys appropriated by Congress for the education, medical attention, agricultural assistance, and social welfare, including relief of distress, of Indians in such State. Sec. 2. That the Secretary of the Interior, in making any contract herein authorized with any State or Territory, may permit such State or Territory to utilize for the purpose of this Act, existing school buildings, hospitals, and other facilities, and all equipment therein or appertaining thereto, including livestock and other personal property owned by the Government, under such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon for their use and maintenance. Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to perform any and all acts and to make such rules and regulations, including minimum standards of service, as may be necessary and proper for the purpose of carrying the provisions of this Act into effect: Provided, That such minimum standards of service are not less than the highest maintained by the State or Territories with which said contract or contracts, as herein provided, are executed. Sec. 4. That the Secretary of the Interior shall report annually to the Congress any contract or contracts made under the provisions of this Act, and the moneys expended thereunder. Sec. 5. That the provisions of this Act shall not apply to the State of Oklahoma. [U.S. Statutes at Large, 48:596.] ...


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