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212 state laws is not denied, and could not be. . . . That the Government did reserve them we have decided, and for a use which would be necessarily continued through years. This was done May 1, 1888, and it would be extreme to believe that within a year Congress destroyed the reservation and took from the Indians the consideration of their grant, leaving them a barren waste—took from them the means of continuing their old habits, yet did not leave them the power to change to new ones. . . . [207 U.S. Reports, 565, 573, 575–77.] 131. Buy Indian Act June 25, 1910 A desire to provide self-support for Indians by giving them preference in employment led to this item in a miscellaneous collection of enactments dealing with Indian property. The provision was used later in the century to stimulate Indian economic development. An Act to provide for determining the heirs of deceased Indians, for the disposition and sale of allotments of deceased Indians, for the leasing of allotments, and for other purposes. . . . . Sec. 23. That hereafter the purchase of Indian supplies shall be made in conformity with the requirements of section thirty-seven hundred and nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States: Provided, That so far as may be practicable Indian labor shall be employed, and purchases of the products of Indian industry may be made in open market in the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior. . . . [U.S. Statutes at Large, 36:861.] 132. Indian Commissioner Valentine on Indian Health Extract from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs November 1, 1910 In the twentieth century the Indian Office became increasingly aware of the serious health conditions existing among the Indians. Commissioner Robert Valentine in his annual report of 1910 indicated some of the problems and a method of attacking them. . . . . The Indian Service in its health work is not aiming merely to more effectively care for and cure those that are sick. The reduction of the death rate is not its primary interest . It is working rather to increase the vitality of the Indian race and to establish for it a new standard of physical well-being. The work is being scientifically developed along lines which have already been successfully tried out by modern preventive medicine. The principal features of this work as it is now organized are: (1) An intensive attack upon the two diseases that most seriously menace the health of the Indians—trachoma and tuberculosis ; (2) preventive work on a large scale, by means of popular education along health lines and more effective sanitary inspection; (3) increased attention to the physical welfare of the children in the schools, so that the physical stamina of the coming generation may be conserved and increased. . . . Systematic efforts are being made to educate the Indians in the schools and on the reservations as to the best methods of treating and preventing the spread of tuberculosis, trachoma, and other infectious and contagious diseases. A manual on tuberculosis, its cause, prevention, and treatment has been published by the medical supervisor and distributed throughout the service. A series of illustrated lectures for a traveling health exhibit are being prepared. A special physician 213 and photographer are in the field securing photographs from which these stereopticon slides and moving pictures can be made. This exhibit will be sent to the different schools and reservations. One of the most important results of this educational work will be that it will instruct the employees at the schools and agencies of the Indian Service as to the methods of preventing disease, and in this way unite the entire service in the health campaign. Increased attention is being given to sanitary inspection. It is planned, wherever possible , to have a house-to-house inspection by a physician of all Indian homes on a reservation . This will make it possible not only to accurately learn the extent of disease and provide for proper treatment, but it will also make it possible for instruction to be given the Indians as to how they may improve the sanitary conditions of their homes, and thereby prevent disease in future. A beginning in this work was made last year on the White Earth Reservation, where the need was pressing. Two special physicians were authorized to carry on the work. More than 200 homes were visited and 1,266 persons examined . Of this number 690 had trachoma and 164 tuberculosis in its various forms...


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