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33 desire to arrest the current of events, which, if permitted to flow in their present channel, must end in the annihilation of those who were once the proprietors of this prosperous country, must be my apology for this digression . . . . [American State Papers: Indian Affairs, 2:182–84.] 29. Civilization Fund Act March 3, 1819 The United States government became increasingly concerned with the education of the Indian tribes in contact with white settlements and encouraged the activities of benevolent societies in providing schools for the Indians. Congress in 1819 authorized an annual “civilization fund” to stimulate and promote this work. An Act making provision for the civilization of the Indian tribes adjoining the frontier settlements . Be it enacted . . . , That for the purpose of providing against the further decline and final extinction of the Indian tribes, adjoining the frontier settlements of the United States, and for introducing among them the habits and arts of civilization, the President of the United States shall be, and he is hereby authorized, in every case where he shall judge improvement in the habits and condition of such Indians practicable, and that the means of instruction can be introduced with their own consent, to employ capable persons of good moral character, to instruct them in the mode of agriculture suited to their situation; and for teaching their children in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and performing such other duties as may be enjoined, according to such instructions and rules as the President may give and prescribe for the regulation of their conduct, in the discharge of their duties. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the annual sum of ten thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated, for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this act; and an account of the expenditure of the money, and proceedings in execution of the foregoing provisions, shall be laid annually before Congress. [U.S. Statutes at Large, 3:516–17.] 30. Abolition of the Government Trading Houses May 6, 1822 The government trading houses or factories suffered economically during the War of 1812 and after the war were attacked by private trading interests. Although strongly supported by such officials as Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian trade, and Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, the factory system fell under the assault. An Act to abolish the United States’ trading establishment with the Indian tribes. Be it enacted . . . , That the President of the United States shall be, and hereby is, authorized and required to cause the business of the United States’ trading-houses among the Indian tribes to be closed, and the accounts of the superintendent of Indian trade, and of the factors and sub-factors, to be settled; and for that purpose, the President is hereby authorized to select, from among the Indian agents, or others, a competent number of fit and suitable persons, to be and appear at the office of Indian trade in Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, and at each of the trading-houses established among Indian tribes, on or before the third day of June next, or as soon thereafter as can conveniently be done, to demand and receive of and from the superintendent of Indian trade, and of the respective factors and sub-factors, all the goods, wares, merchandise, furs, peltries, evidences of debt, and property and effects of every kind which may be in their power or possession , by virtue of their respective offices, 34 and justly due and belonging to the United States; and the said agents, selected for the purpose aforesaid, shall be furnished with copies of the latest quarterly returns of the said superintendent, factors, and sub-factors, as rendered by them to the Treasury Department , and copies of any other papers in the said department which will show what is, or ought to be due and coming to the United States, from the said office of Indian trade in Georgetown, and from each of the tradinghouses established among Indians. . . . Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the goods, wares, and merchandise, which shall be delivered over to the agents of the United States, under the provisions of this act, shall be placed at the disposition of the President of the United States, subject, under his orders , towards satisfying or extinguishing the treaty obligations on the part of the United States, to keep up trading-houses with the Indians ; also, towards the payment of annuities due, or to...


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