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25 22. Treaty of Portage des Sioux July 19, 1815 At the conclusion of the War of 1812, in which many tribes of the Northwest had actively supported the British, treaties of peace were signed with the several tribes at Portage des Sioux, on the west bank of the Mississippi above the mouth of the Missouri, and at Spring Wells, near Detroit. This treaty with one group of Sioux is typical. A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded at Portage des Sioux, between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the Chiefs and Warriors of the Siouxs of the river St. Peter’s, on the part and behalf of their said Tribe, on the other part. The parties being desirous of reestablishing peace and friendship between the United States and the said tribe, and of being placed in all things, and in every respect, on the same footing upon which they stood before the late war between the United States and Great Britain, have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. Every injury or act of hostility committed by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot. Art. 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America and all the individuals composing the tribe of the Siouxs of the river St. Peter’s; and all the friendly relations that existed between them before the war, shall be, and the same are hereby, renewed. Art. 3. The undersigned chiefs and warriors , for themselves and their said tribe, do hereby acknowledge themselves and their tribe to be under the protection of the United States, and of no other power, nation, or sovereign, whatsoever. . . . [Charles J. Kappler, ed., Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:114.] 23. Governor Cass on British Traders July 20, 1815 A source of irritation on the northwest frontier after the War of 1812 was the activity of the British traders, who still influenced the Indians within the territory of the United States. Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan Territory, writing to Acting Secretary of War A. J. Dallas from Detroit in July 1815, described the danger and urged establishment of military posts to cut off the British traders. . . . . The privilege which British traders have heretofore enjoyed of carrying on a lucrative commerce with the Indians is a subject , which will doubtless engage the attention of the Government. To this source may be traced most of the difficulties we have experienced in our intercourse with them. I have every reason to believe that the Indian Department opposite to us are about to adopt the same systematick course of measures , which they have so long and so successfully pursued but with renewed activity and increased exertion. A deputation of One influential Chief from each of the different tribes left Malden shortly since for the lower Province and another follows in a few days. What their precise object is we have not yet been able to ascertain, but such enquiries are making as will soon disclose it to us. There is little doubt however of its relating to a general, systematick and vigorous organization of their Indian Department. In the mean time a large quantity of goods have arrived at Malden to be distributed as presents and the agents and Subordinate Officers are more numerous than at any former period. These unerring indications give us timely warning that the same measures are to be adopted, ...


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