8. Northwest Ordinance, July 13, 1787
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9 allowed to trade with any nation of Indians , within the territory of the United States. That no person, citizen or other, under the penalty of five hundred dollars, shall reside among or trade with any Indian or Indian nation, within the territory of the United States, without a license for that purpose first obtained from the Superintendant of the district , or one of the deputies, who are hereby directed to give such license to every person , who shall produce from the supreme executive of any state, a certificate under the seal of the state, that he is of good character and suitably qualified, and provided for that employment, for which license he shall pay the sum of fifty dollars, to the said superintendant for the use of the United States. That no license to trade with the Indians shall be in force for a longer term that one year; nor shall permits or passports be granted to any other persons than citizens of the United States to travel through the Indians nations, without their having previously made their business known to the superintendant of the district, and received his special approbation. That previous to any person or persons obtaining a license to trade as aforesaid, he or they shall give bond in three thousand dollars to the superintendant of the district, for the use of the United States, for his or their strict adherence to, and observance of such rules and regulations as Congress may, from time to time, establish for the government of the Indian trade. All sums to be received by the said Superintedents, either for licenses or fines, shall be annually accounted for by them with the board of treasury. And be it further ordained, That the said superintendants, and the deputies, shall not be engaged, either directly or indirectly, in trade with the Indians, on pain of forfeiting their Offices. . . . And the said Superintendants and deputy superintendents, shall each of them give bond with surety to the board of treasury, in trust for the United States; the superintendants each in the sum of six thousand dollars, and the deputy superintendents each in the sum of three thousand dollars, for the faithful discharge of the duties of their office. And be it further ordained, That all fines and forfeitures which may be incurred by contravening this ordinance, shall be sued for and recovered before any court of record within the United States, the one moiety thereof to the use of him or them who may prosecute therefor, and the other moiety to the use of the United States. And the said Superintendants shall have power, and hereby are authorized, by force to restrain therefrom, all persons who shall attempt an intercourse with the said Indians without a license therefor, obtained as aforesaid. And be it further ordained, That in all cases where transactions with any nation or tribe of Indians shall become necessary to the purposes of this ordinance, which cannot be done without interfering with the legislative rights of a State, the Superintendant in whose district the same shall happen, shall act in conjunction with the authority of such State. [ Journals of the Continental Congress, 31:490–93.] 8. Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787 The legislation which established the Northwest Territory, thus inaugurating the policy of organizing and governing the national domain west of the Appalachians, included a firm statement of good faith and justice in dealing with the Indians. . . . Article the Third. Religion, Morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, Schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged . The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians, their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty, they never shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorised by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall from time to time be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. . . . [ Journals of the Continental Congress, 32:340–41.] ...