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216 Goat’s beard can be found over the entire state except the southeastern corner between April and October, with a peak in June. The flowering heads of this native plant are conspicuous enough, but exceeded by the prominent green bracts. The seed heads are huge, 4 inches across. Goat’s beard prefers prairie soils and the openings provided by roads and paths. Goat’s beard Tragopogon dubius seed head 3 217 Achene A small, hard fruit with a single seed that is fused to the cell wall. For example, the “seeds” of a strawberry are achenes. Alternate The positioning of leaves on a stem in a one-ata -node pattern. This is the more common arrangement on broadleaf plants and on grasses and lilies. See also Opposite. Binomial The system of naming species of living things that was invented by Carl Linnaeus. It consists of a generic name, establishing a relationship, and a specific epithet. For example , in the name Sagittaria latifolia, Sagittaria is the generic name and latifolia is the species name. See also Genus. Bracts Specialized leaves that are part of the flowering section of a plant. Usually they are leaflike in texture but are smaller and positioned directly under the flower. Cane A hard, jointed aerial stem in grasses, or a perennial stem from a perennial base, as in blackberries. Capsules Fruits that are dry and papery, with dry seeds inside. Disk flowers Small tubular flowers that are tightly packed into the center of most composites. Fruit The mature ovary after fertilization, with any other structures remaining with it. Some examples are the capsule of a penstemon, and the small dry seed of a grass. Glossary 3 218 Genus The taxonomic group that is immediately above species ; the first part of a binomial name (see also Binomial). The plural of genus is genera. Herb A plant with no woody parts aboveground. Inflorescence Parts of a flowering plant to which the flowers or fruits are attached. Opposite Positioning of leaves on a stem in a two-at-a-node pattern (see also Alternate). Panicle An inflorescence that is much-branched, with the ultimate flowers remote from the main axis. Ray flowers Specialized outer flowers arranged around the outside of a disk in composites. These usually resemble the petals on a simple flower. Recurved Gradually bent or turned backward. Spadix A spike with a fleshy axis, bearing small, close-set flowers. Species The second word of a binomial name, designating a specific kind of plant or animal. Plants of a species usually share similar habitat and form, and can interbreed. Spike Inflorescence with a central stem and one or more closely attached flowers. Succulent Firm and fleshy or juicy. 3 219 Bibliography Correll, D. S., and M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner, Tex.: Texas Research Foundation. Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993–2005. Flora of North America. Vols. 1–5, 23–26. New York: Oxford University Press. Goodman, George. 1958. Spring flora of Oklahoma. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Duplicating Service. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas. Kindscher, Kelly. 1987. Edible wild plants of the prairie: An ethnobotanical guide. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas. Ladd, Doug, and Frank Oberle. 1995. Tallgrass prairie wildflowers : A field guide. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press. McCoy, Doyle. 1976. Roadside wildflowers of Oklahoma. 2 vols. Self-published. Oklahoma Biological Survey. 2005. Vascular plants database. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma. http://www.geo. Taylor, R. J., and C. E. S. Taylor. 1994. An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma . 3d ed. Durant, Okla.: Self-published. Tyrl, R. J., S. C. Barber, P. Buck, J. R. Estes, P. Folley, L. K. Magrath, C. Murray, A. Ryburn, B. Smith, C. E. S. Taylor, 3 220 R. A. Thompson, W. Elisens, C. Murray, J. Walker, and L. Watson. 2010. Keys and descriptions for the vascular plants of Oklahoma. Noble, Okla.: Flora of Oklahoma, Inc. Tyrl, R., T. Bidwell, and R. Masters. 2002. Field guide to Oklahoma plants. Stillwater, Okla.: Oklahoma State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. The PLANTS database. Baton Rouge, La.: National Plant Data Center. Yatskievych, G. 1999. Steyermark’s flora of Missouri. Rev. ed., vol. 1. St. Louis, Mo.: Missouri Botanical Garden. 3 221 Name Index acacia, prairie, 91 Acacia...


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