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notes Introduction 1. For the few studies of Shōzen’s life and work, see Ishihara Akira, “Kajiwara Shōzen no shōgai to sono chosho”; Hattori Toshirō, Kamakura jidai igakushi no kenkyū, pp. 93–158; Yamada Shigemasa, “Kajiwara Shōzen to sono shūi”; Adachihara Akiko, “Man’anpō shōnimon ni mirareru Shōkanron no eikyō”; and Adachihara Akiko, “Man’anpō no shōnimon ni tsuite.” 2. I have used two editions of the Ton’ishō: first, an unpaginated microfilm hard copy of a text from the Naikaku Bunko, held in the Department of Medical History of the Oriental Medicine Research Institute of the Kitasato Institute, to which I make chapter references; second, in my citations I also make references to the Kagaku Shoin facsimile edition, which may be more readily available. However, whereas the former is clear and legible throughout, the legibility and readability of the latter vary considerably from chapter to chapter. This edition is also compiled of selections from different manuscripts. It is not a preferred reference tool, but it does allow more precise references. 3. For the Man’anpō, I have primarily used the 1986 Kagaku Shoin facsimile edition, and this is the source I cite in notes. I have also utilized but do not cite as such an unpaginated microfilm hard copy of a text held in the Department of Medical History of the Oriental Medicine Research Institute of the Kitasato Institute. 4. This translation supersedes my earlier version of the title, “Essentials of Medicine.” Two useful editions of Ishinpō are Nihon igaku sōsho katsuji­ bon and Zen’yaku seikai Ishinpō. For two partial English translations, see C. H. Hsia, Ilza Veith, and Robert H. Geertsma, The Essentials of Medicine in Ancient China and Japan: Yasuyori Tanba’s Ishinpo; Howard Levy and Ishihara Akira, The Tao of Sex: An Annotated Translation of the Twenty-Eighth Section of the Essence of Medical Prescriptions (Ishinpo). For an introduction 124 Notes to pages xiv–6 to the text and its transmission, see Sugitatsu Yoshikazu, Ishinpō no denrai. For a useful overview, see Shinmura Taku, Nihon iryō shakaishi no kenkyū, pp. 274–281. 5. For a more extensive discussion of this topic, see the introduction in Andrew Edmund Goble, Kenneth R. Robinson, and Haruko Wakabayashi, eds., Tools of Culture: Japan’s Cultural, Intellectual, Medical, and Technological Contacts in East Asia, 1000s to 1500s. 6. For more detail, see Hattori Toshirō, Kamakura jidai igakushi no kenkyū, pp. 93–158. 7. Ton’ishō, chapter 8 (Kagaku Shoin edition, 1986, p. 177, section V, leaves 71~72). Hereafter, Ton’ishō, chapter 8 (KS, p. 177, V-71~72). This is also partially cited in Hattori Toshirō, Kamakura jidai igakushi no kenkyū, pp. 99, 104. Chapter 1 The Kamakura Context 1. I thus depart from the chronology of overseas influence offered in David Swain and Masayoshi Sugimoto, Science and Culture in Traditional Japan, A.D. 600–1854. The authors suggest that an “Early Chinese Cultural Wave II” started in 1401, following on from “The Semi-Seclusion Era: 894–1401.” 2. See Ivo Smits, “China as Classic Text: Chinese Books and Twelfth-Century Japanese Collectors.” The Taiping yulan example is found on p. 197. 3. On Kyushu and foreign contacts, see Bruce Batten’s definitive Gateway to Japan: Hakata in War and Peace, 500–1300. 4. Bruce Batten, “An Open and Shut Case? Thoughts on Late Heian Overseas Trade,” p. 310. 5. Shinmura Taku, Nihon iryō shakai shi no kenkyū, p. 374, noting entries from the Shōyūki from Chōwa 3 (1014).6.25 and 6.28. 6. Gyokuyō, Kaō 2 (1170).9.20 (1.107). 7. Heike monogatari, book 3, chapter 11: Hiroshi Kitagawa and Bruce Tsuchida, The Tale of the Heike, pp. 193–197; Helen Craig McCullough, The Tale of the Heike, pp. 115–117. 8 See Ethan Segal, “Awash With Coins: The Spread of Money in Medieval Japan,” pp. 341–345. 9. See Gu Wenbi and Lin Shimin, “Neiha ni genzon suru Nihon koku Dazaifu Hakata tsū no kakyō kokuseki no kenkyū,” pp. 103–104, for the inscriptions. 10. Antei 2 (1228).3.13 Kantō gechijō (Kamakura ibun komonjo hen, vol. 6, document 3732; hereafter cited as KI, 6:3732). 11. Gyokuyō, Kenkyū 2 (1191).2.19 (3.661). Notes to pages 7–11 125 12. Ms. Zhang’s family story as revealed in legal documents is a particularly poignant one, involving one of her sons murdering another son, commending land to relatives, her death on the...


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