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xiii Acknowledgements This book is the result of a collaborative research project organized by the Emerging Dynamic Global Economies (EDGE) Network together with research institutes and experts around the world. The project was generously funded by Networks of Centres of Excellence Canada (NCE) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Organizational meetings were held in London , England, and inVancouver, Canada, in 2007. Inspiration and guidance was provided by Professor John H. Jackson, Julio Lacarte Muró, John Weekes, Jane Bradley, Gerhard Erasmus, Gabrielle Marceau, Krista Nadakavukaren-Schefer, Federico Ortino, Seema Sapra, and Peter Van den Bossche at the London meeting . In Vancouver, Padideh Ala’i, Henry Gao, and Julio Lacarte Muró helped to shape the substance and direction of the project. Early drafts of the contributions in this volume were presented and discussed at a workshop called Institutional Reform of the WTO, held at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo, Canada, in March 2008. I am extremely grateful to the contributors who have written and revised many drafts over the course of the past year.Without their hard work and dedication , this book would not have been written. They are Padideh Ala’i,Alberto Alvarez-Jiménez, Ljiljana Biukoviç, Yves Bonzon, Thomas Cottier, Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, Manfred Elsig, Gerhard Erasmus, Henry Gao, Pablo Heidrich, Chin Leng Lim, Seema Sapra, Natalia Shpilkovskaya, Diana Tussie, Peter Van den Bossche, and Heng Wang. Thanks are also due to the participants who attended the CIGI workshop and provided their valuable comments on early drafts of the papers. In addition to the authors, the participants included Manmohan Agarwal, Alan Alexandroff, Agata Antkiewicz, Thomas Bernes, Terry Collins-Williams, William Davey, Michael Ewing-Chow, Pieter Jan Kuijper, Julio Lacarte Muró, John Odell, Sylvia Ostry, Gregory Shaffer, and Robert Wolfe. The workshop was lively, stimulating, and engaging and provided fabulous fodder for the difficult work of revising the papers. Early versions of some of the papers in this book were published in the Mini-Symposium on Transparency in the WTO in the Journal of International Economic Law,Volume 11 Number 4, December 2008, Oxford University Press. Included in this mini-symposium were articles by Peter Van den Bossche,Yves Bonzon, Padideh Ala’i, and Ljiljana Biukoviç, as well as an introduction by me. Henry Gao and Chin Leng Lim also published an early version of their chapter in the same volume of the Journal of International Economic Law. Our appreciation is extended to Professor John Jackson, editor-in-chief, and his co-editors for graciously agreeing to publish the mini-symposium and the article by Professors Gao and Lim in the journal. The EDGE Network in its life as the Network of Centres of Excellence was a collaborative,interdisciplinary project involving business leaders,scholars,and government officials from across Canada and around the world. Many people deserve recognition for their tireless efforts and dedication to the success of that enterprise—you know who you are. The Board of Directors and, in particular , Donald Campbell, chair of the Board, deserve commendation and praise for their unwavering loyalty and commitment of valuable time and energies to building the Network. This book and the companion volume edited by EDGE Network research leader Jeremy de Beer, Implementing the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Development Agenda, are the fruits of that labour. I am deeply indebted to Irena Pawlowski for her indefatigable, dedicated, and loyal assistance in the day-to-day operation of the EDGE Network, including the organization of meetings and workshops, as well as endless administrative , financial, and travel arrangements. David Quayat deserves a special vote of thanks for his remarkable job of tirelessly and persistently editing all the contributions. This book would not have been possible without them. EDGE Network Research Fellow Alberto Alvarez-Jiménez is to be commended for his diligent, comprehensive research and writing several papers for the project. Natalia Shpilkovskaya also provided industrious and thorough research assistance in the preparation of the papers and bibliography. The EDGE Network would not exist were it not for the significant funding from the NCE and the IDRC. At the NCE, Jean-Claude Gavrel and PierreFran çois Le Fol deserve gratitude for their assistance and support in those critical early years. The wonderful people at IDRC and CIGI have provided ongoing encouragement and assistance for this project, including with the publication and dissemination of this book. In particular, I would like to thank Rohinton Medhora, Robert Robertson, and David O’Brien at IDRC, together xiv Acknowledgements with their...