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Introduction 1. Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter, 215–16, 217. For a comprehensive study of crowd representations in American literature, see Esteve, Aesthetics and Politics; see also Mills, Crowd in American Literature. On the Scarlet Letter see, among others, Brook, “Citizen Hester.” 2. See, among others, Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings. On the end of the nineteenth -century crisis, see Luisa Mangoni, Una crisi di fine secolo; Salvati, “Vecchio e nuovo ordine,” 149–73; see also the introduction by Giacanelli, Frigessi, and Mangoni to Lombroso, Delitto, genio, follia, 5–37, 333–69, 685–97; Pombeni , La trasformazione politica. 3. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings, 3. 4. De Grazia, Irresistible Empire. 5. Testi, “Questi partiti ‘selvaggi e voraci.’” 6. On the theme of crowds, masses, and mobs see, among others, Ginneken, Crowds, Psychology, and Politics, 1871–1889; McPhail, Myth of the Madding Crowd; Mucchi Faina, L’abbraccio della folla; Giner, Mass Society. See also Canetti , Mass und Macht; Moscovici, L’âge des foules; McClelland, Crowd and the Mob; Barrows, Distorting Mirrors; Rudé, Crowd in History, 1730–48; Boyer, Urban Masses; and Nye, Origins of Crowd Psychology. 7. Foner, Story of American Freedom, 154. 8. Gerstle, American Crucible. See also Gerstle’s “Protean Character of American Liberalism.” On nationalism and American liberalism see also, among others, Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities; Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780; Hollinger, Post-ethnic America; Jacobson, Barbarian Virtues; Rorty, Achieving Our Country; Holmes, Passions and Constraint; Ignatieff , Blood and Belonging; Appleby, Liberalism and Republicanism; Kloppenberg , Virtues of Liberalism and Uncertain Victory; and Dawley, Struggles for Justice. 9. Litwack, Trouble in Mind; Lorini, Rituals of Race; Allen, Als, Lewis, and Litwack, Without Sanctuary; Gilje, Rioting in America; Brundage, Lynching in the New South; and Tolmay, Festival of Violence. 10. Livingston, “Strange Career of the ‘Social Self’”; in the same issue of Radical History Review see also Mary B. King, “Make Love Not War: New ManNOTES agement Theory and the Social Self,” Radical History Review 76 (winter 2000): 15–24; Barry Shank, “Subject, Commodity, and the Marketplace: The American Artists Groups and the Mass Production of Distinction,” Radical History Review 76 (winter 2000): 25–42; and Casey N. Blake, “All Lost in the Supermarket,” Radical History Review 76 (winter 2000): 80–89. See also Livingston, Pragmatism . On the theme of the public sphere see Habermas, Lifeworld and System and “Concluding Remarks”; and Mary Ryan, “Gender and Public Access.” 11. Hansen, Lost Promise of Patriotism, xiv, xvi. See also my review of Hansen’s book in Clio: A Journal of Literature 34, no. 1–2 (2004–5): 206–10; moreover, see, among others, Hollinger, Post-ethnic America; Cheah and Robbins, Cosmopolitics ; Dharwadker, Cosmopolitan Geographies; Bodnar, Remaking America and Bonds of Affection; O’Leary, To Die For; Joshua Cohen, For Love of Country; Rorty, Achieving Our Country; Nussbaum, “Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism”; Holmes, Passions and Constraint; Ignatieff, Blood and Belonging; Rogers Smith, Civic Ideals; and Kaplan and Pease, Cultures of United States Imperialism. 12. For a reconstruction in general terms of the theme of crowd psychology in U.S. culture, see Eugene E. Leach, “Mental Epidemics”; and Bush, Lord of Attention. For more specific studies of social psychology and sociology, see Giner, Mass Society, 57–68; and McPhail, Myth of the Madding Crowd, 2–9. For a comprehensive synthesis of the theories of the crowd from its origins to the present, see Mucchi Faina, L’abbraccio della folla, 32–43. Dorothy Ross touches on the theme of the crowd only briefly; see Origins of American Social Science, 238–47. 13. For an analysis of the rise of public relations in regard to the business world, see De Grazia, Irresistible Empire; see also, among others, Fasce, La democrazia degli affari. 14. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear; Chandler, America’s Greatest Depression; Bordo et al., Defining Moment; Schlesinger, Age of Roosevelt; Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal; Vaudagna, Il New Deal; Badger, New Deal; Fraser and Gerstle, Rise and Fall; Brinkley, Voices of Protest, End of Reform , and Liberalism and Its Discontents; McElvaine, Great Depression and Down and Out; Plotke, Building a Democratic Political Order; Foner, Story of American Freedom, chap. 9; Terkel, Hard Times; Sitkoff, New Deal for Blacks; Ware, Partner and I; Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal; Lieberman, Shifting the Color Line; Sullivan, Days of Hope; and Vezzosi, Madri e stato. 15. These themes have been treated only marginally in the now-classic works of Purcell, Crisis of Democratic Theory; Ricci, Tragedy of Political Science; and Seidelman, Disenchanted Realists. On this same subject...


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