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Index Abductions, government-inititiated, 189–90, 193, 194–95 Academia Coreana, Myongji University, 16n27 accident rates, worker, 172 ADD (Agency for Defense Development), 23, 27 administrative capacity, governmental, 5–6, 9 administrative democracy. See democracy values, Park era African Americans, U.S. political exclusion , 114–15 Agency for Defense Development (ADD), 23, 27 Agency for Rural Revitalization (ARR), 152, 153 Agricultural Bank Law, 152 Agricultural Cooperative, 152–54 Agricultural Extension Office, 152–53, 158–59 Ahn, Byong Man, 149 aid leverage, impact on economic planning , 70–71 American Development Loan Funds (DFL), 70 American Pfizer, 126 Amnesty International, 199 Amsden, Alice, 134 anti-communism ideology: and bureaucratic power, 174; and economic policy , 5, 12–13, 89–90, 96–97; in national goal hierarchy, 97–98; as repression justification, 188; as U.S. motivation, 109, 188, 190. See also cold war, influence on political economy Argentina, worker accident rates, 172 ARR (Agency for Rural Revitalization), 152, 153 assassinations/assassination attempts: North Korean, 19, 21, 23, 32, 40n31, 105n10; South Korean, 3, 7, 36, 137 Association of Korean Studies, 192 Australia, Freedom House survey, 4, 15n7 authoritarian nostalgia, 7–8, 108 authoritative hierarchy, in social identity, 178–80 Banking sector, 5, 26, 61, 152, 155, 173 bankruptcy potential, national, 6, 48 big freedom (k’ŭn chayu), 13 bossism argument, democracy consolidation , 107–8, 113 Boyer, William W., 149 Brown, Harold, 34 Brown Memorandum, 36, 42n52 Index 223 Bruntland Report, 89 Buddhism transition, 120 bureaucratic organizations, developmentalist mentalité characteristics, 174–77, 183–84 Burma, North Korean attack, 40n31 Burmeister, Larry, 153 business organizations. See chaebŏlowned companies Caldwell, Malcolm, 202n10, n12 Cambodia, 101 campaign funds, 49, 60, 125 CANDU reactor, 33 Carnegie, Andrew, 116 Carter, Jimmy (and administration), 21, 32–36, 111 chaebŏl-owned companies: compressed modernization perspective, 170–74; in defense industry planning, 24, 27; in democracy barrier argument, 115– 16; developmentalist mentalité characteristics , 177–79; in minjung theory, 7; Second Steel Mill campaign, 53; Vietnam War impact, 75. See also Heavy and Chemical Industrialization (HCI) Plan chaeya, in social formation debate, 7 chagŭn chayu. See small freedom Chang Chunha, 110 Chang Kiyŏng, 56 Chang Myŏn administration, 8, 68 Ch’angbi publishing house, 86 Ch’angjak kwa pipy’ŏng, 86 Ch’angwŏn complex, 28, 33 Chi Myŏnggwan (TK reports), 195–96, 197, 203n25, n27 Chiang Kai-shek, 77 China: economic activity, 3, 88, 117; Japanese children problem, 195; North Korea visit, 31; tributary system, 120; U.S. rapprochement, 6, 19, 78–79; Vietnam War, 77 Cho Dong Kok, 148 Ch’oe Doksin, 201 Ch’oe Kyuha, 38n12 Choe Suh Myon, 192 Chŏlla Province, voting patterns, 114 Chŏn T’aeil, 133 Chŏng Kyŏng Mo, 196–97 Chŏng Yongdŏk, 174 ch’onghwa system, 99–100 chongi map’ae, 63n9 Chosŏn Shipbuilding Company, 126 Chu Chang-Joon, 202n12 Chun Doo Hwan, 7, 86, 111, 116, 187 civil liberties, Freedom House survey, 4 civil participation, in bureaucratic culture , 175–76 civil society. See democracy entries; developmentalist mentalité cold war: and anti-democratic regimes, 109, 187; peace movements, 191–92, 202n12 cold war, influence on political economy: overview, 66–67, 78–79; from JapanSouth Korea normalization, 72–75; planning strategies, 67–71; Vietnam War involvement, 75–78. See also anticommunism ideology; democracy values, international solidarity movements Collective Bargaining measure, 127 Committee to Clarify the True Facts of Anti-National Pro-Japanese Acts, 10 communism. See anti-communism ideology compressed modernization, defined, 166, 167. See also developmentalist mentalité Confucianism: and civil society development , 176; and democracy, 108, 112, Index 224 119; transition time, 120 Congress, U.S., 32, 35, 36 congressional power, in bureaucratic culture, 175–76 constitutions: post-Park era, 116; Third Republic regime, 110, 162n1; Yusin system, 6, 15n10, 90, 127, 162n2 corruption, 107, 112–13, 176, 193 Councils for Rural Revitalization, 155–56 Critchfield, Richard, 148–49 cross-border civil society. See democracy values, international solidarity movements cultural/social identity, compressed modernization impact, 180–83 Cumings, Bruce, 89 currency conversion plan, 69–70 Decree on Korean Agricultural Associations, 155 defense industry, expansion: overview, 19–21, 37–38, 51; mobilization strategies , 27–29, 39n20; modernization program, 29–31; nuclear/missile programs , 31–34, 40n36; planning and preparation, 21–24, 39n14; triumvirate member roles, 24–26 Demag Cranes & Components, 46–47 demobilization strategies, labor. See labor policies and relations democracy values: Freedom House survey , 4–5, 15nn6–7; post-Park administrations , 111, 116, 190–91, 198–99; Rhee administration, 109; time factor, 120–21...


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