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201 NOTES  Introduction 1. For a brief account of Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931, please see Kung Chin-ku et al., Jungkuo kan ri zhan zheng shi kao [The Draft History of China’s Resistance War against Japan] (Hupei: Hupei People’s Publishing, 1983–84), 19–28; Frank Dorn, The Sino-Japanese War, 1931–1941: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor (New York: Macmillan, 1974), 28–29; Akira Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921–1931 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965), 285–99. 2. George Fitch’s circular letter of Christmas Eve 1937 from Nanking, in Martha Lund Smalley, ed., American Missionary Eyewitnesses to the Nanking Massacre, 1937–1938 (New Haven: Yale Divinity School Library, 1997) 1; H. J. Timperley, What War Means: The Japanese Terror in China—A Documentary Record (London: Victor Gollancz, 1938), 20. 3. Minnie Vautrin, diary entries for December 16, 17, and 21, 1937, in Wilhelmina [Minnie] Vautrin, Diary and Misc., 1937–40, Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Special Collection, Yale Divinity School Library (hereafter cited as Vautrin’s Diary; for details, please see “A Note on the Two Diaries” in this book); John Rabe, diary entries for December 16 and 17, 1937, in La bei ri ji [Rabe’s Diary; in Chinese], trans. Liu Hai-ning et al. (Nanjing: Jiangsu Historical Books, 1997), 185, 187–91, 197–99 (all citations to Rabe’s Diary are to this edition); family letters of Dr. Robert Wilson, December 15 and 18, 1937, in Timothy Brook, ed., The Documents on the Rape of Nanking (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 212–17. 4. John R. Pritchard and Sonia M. Zaide, eds., The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The CompleteTranscripts of the Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (London: Garland, 1981–87), 20:49608. 5. Brook, Documents on the Rape of Nanking, 14–16; Daqing Yang, “Documentary Evidence and Studies of Japanese War Crimes: An Interim Assessment,” Researching Japanese War Crimes (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration , 2006), 29–30; Sun Zhai-wei, Chen qi li shi: Nanjing da tu sha yan jyou yu shi kau [To verify history: Research and deliberation on the Nanjing massacre] (Nanjing: Jiangsu People’s Publishing, 2005), 273–76. 6. Chinese historians En-han Lee of the Academia Sinica of Taiwan and Sun Zhaiwei of the Historical Research Center of Jiangsu Social Sciences Academy in Nanjing, +X1RWHVLQGG $0 202 NOTES TO PAGES 1–3 after years of studies, conclude that the total deaths estimates of “350,000” and over “300,000” respectively, are reliable. See En-han Lee, Ribenjun zhan zheng baoxing zhi yanju [A Study of wartime atrocities by the Japanese military] (Taipei: Commerce Publishing, 1993), 30–33, 35–41; and Sun Zhai-wei, Chen qi li shi, 255–65. Japanese historians Fujiwara Akiro and Tomio Hora agree that the number of Chinese victims was between 200,000 and 300,000. See Tomio Hora, Nanjing da tu sha: Ting ban [The Nanking massacre: Definitive edition), trans. Mao Liang-hung et al. (Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing, 1988), 3; and Fujiwara Akira, Nankin daigyakusatsu sengen [The Nanking massacre: New edition] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publishing, 1988), 20. See also Kaga Mitsuyoki and Himeta Mitsuyoshi, eds. and trans., Shogen Nankin daigyakusatsu [Testimonies on the great Nanking massacre] (Tokyo: Aoki Shoten Publishing, 1987), 53; Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (New York: Basic Books, 1997), 4–6, 211; and Hua-ling Hu, American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2000), 80–87. 7. Please see, for example, Akira Suzuki, Shin: “Nankin daigyakusatsu” no maboroshi [New edition: The illusion of the “Nanking massacre”] (Tokyo: Asuka Shinsha, 1999); and Masaaki Tanaka, “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyoko [The illusion of “the Rape of Nanking”] (Tokyo: Nihon Kyobunsha, 1984). 8. Chang, Rape of Nanking, 4, 6. However, on the jacket of the book, it simply states: “The Japanese army . . . murdered more than 300,000 Chinese civilians.” 9. Please see, for example, Masahiro Yamamoto, Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000); Takashi Yoshida, The Making of the Rape of Nanking (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); as well as Joshua Fogel, ed., The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), and Review of The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, by Iris...


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